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Thermal Methods of Polymer Analysis


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Thermal Methods of Polymer Analysis
Author: T. R. Crompton
ISBN 9781847356611

Published: 2013
pages 242

Price: $200.00 + S&H
  • Summary
  • Table of Contents
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This book reviews the various thermal methods used for the characterisation of polymer properties and composition. All these methods study the properties of polymers as they change with temperature.

The methods discussed in this book are: differential photocalorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric thermal analysis, differential thermal analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, evolved gas analysis, gas chromatography, gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry, mass spectrometry, microthermal analysis, thermal volatilisation, thermogravimetric analysis and thermomechanical analysis.

Each technique is discussed in detail and examples of the use of each technique are also given. Each chapter has an extensive list of references so that the reader can follow up topics of interest.

This book will be a useful reference for those who already use any of these thermal methods but will also be of interest to undergraduates and those who are just starting to use these techniques.
1 Pyrolysis–Gas Chromatography Techniques 
1.1 Theoretical Considerations 
1.2 Instrumentation  
1.2.1 Combustion Furnace Pyrolyser  
1.2.2 Filament Pyrolyser 
1.2.3 Curie Point Pyrolyser 
1.2.4 Laser Pyrolysis 
1.3 Polymer Degradation Mechanisms 
1.3.1 Depolymerisation 
1.3.2 Side Group Elimination  
1.4 Polypropylene 
1.5 Determination of the Degree of Cure of Rubber
1.6 Polybutadiene 
1.7 Polyacrylates and Polymethacrylates  
1.8 Polyethylene Oxide  
1.9 Polysulfides  
1.10 Silicon Polymers
1.11 Determination of Unsaturation in Ethylene–Propylene–Diene Terpolymers 
1.12 Polyethylene Acrylate and Ethylene–vinyl Acetate Copolymers 
1.13 Styrene-based Copolymers  
1.13.1 Styrene-n-butyl Acrylate Copolymers
1.14 Styrene–Methylymethacrylate Copolymers  
1.15 Styrene–isoprene Copolymers 
1.16 Styrene Divinylbenzene  
1.17 Chloromethylated Polystyrene–Divinylbenzene Copolymers  
1.18 Vinyl Chloride–Vinylidene Chloride Copolymers 
1.19 Comonomer Units in Polyhexafluoropropylene–Vinylidene Chloride Copolymers
1.20 Nitrile–butadiene  
1.21 Miscellaneous Copolymers  
2 Thermogravimetric Analysis 
2.1 Theoretical Considerations  
2.2 Applications
2.2.1 Thermal Stability Studies 
2.2.2 Degradation Studies 
2.2.3 Complementary Pyrolysis Studies  
2.2.4 Activation Energy  
2.2.5 Polymer Transitions  
2.2.6 Effect of Antioxidants on Polymer Ageing  
2.2.7 Polymer Lifetime Measurements  
2.2.8 Combustion Inhibition 
3 Complementary Thermogravimetry, Gas chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy and Fourier-Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy  
3.1 Thermogravimetry – Gas chromatography – Mass Spectroscopy Techniques 
3.1.1 Instrumentation  
3.1.2 Applications 
3.1.2.1 Ethylene–polystyrene Copolymer  
3.1.2.2 Ethylene–vinyl Acetate  
3.1.2.3 Epoxy Resins  
3.1.2.4 Phosphorus Containing Polymers 
3.1.2.5 Polyimides. 
3.1.2.6 Miscellaneous Polymers 
3.2 Thermogravimetric Analysis–FT-IR 
3.2.1 Instrumentation  
3.2.2 Applications 
3.2.2.1 Polypropylene Carbonate 
3.2.2.2 Miscellaneous Polymers 
4 Evolved Gas Analysis 
4.1 Theoretical Considerations  
4.2 Applications. 
4.2.1 Polypropylene  
4.2.2 Polyethylene Oxide
4.2.3 Cellulosic Flame Retardants 
4.3 TGA – GC based Evolved Gas Analysis 
4.3.1 Thermoresist Rubbers
4.4 Pyrolysis-evolved Gas–infrared Spectroscopy  
4.5 Antioxidant Degradation  
5 Thermal Volatilisation Analysis
5.1 Applications
6 Thermal Volatilisation Analysis
6.1 Applications
6.1.1 Measurement of Polymer Transitions
6.1.2 Phase Change
6.1.3 Curing Kinetics
6.1.4 Polymer Degradation Studies
6.1.5 Thermal and Oxidative Stability 
6.1.6 Polymer Characterisation
6.1.7 Crystallinity  
6.1.8 Miscellaneous Applications
6.2 Complimentary Differential Thermal Analysis–Mass Spectrometry 
7 Differential Scanning Calorimetry  
7.1 Instrumentation
7.2 Applications
7.2.1 Determination of Crystallinity  
7.2.2 Effect of Solvents on Crystallinity  
7.2.3 Crystallisation Kinetics
7.2.4 Effects of Fillers on Crystallinity  
7.2.5 Crystallisation Temperature  
7.2.6 Curing Kinetics 
7.2.7 Measurement of Transition Temperatures, Glass Transition, other Transitions 
7.2.8 Preparation of Phase Diagrams
7.2.9 Melting Temperature 
7.2.10 Miscellaneous Applications of DSC  
8 Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis 
8.1 Applications 
8.1.1 Measurement of Glass Transition Temperature and other Transitions =
8.1.2 Resin Cure Studies  
8.1.3 Modulus Measurements
8.1.4 Stress–strain Measurements  
8.1.5 Rheological Properties and Viscosity 
8.1.6 Relaxation Phenomena  
8.1.7 Morphology
8.1.8 Thermal Properties  
8.1.9 Other Applications  
9 Thermomechanical Analysis
9.1 Theoretical Considerations  
9.2 Instrumentation  
9.3 Applications 
9.3.1 Mechanical and Thermal Properties
9.3.2 Transitions  
9.3.3 Fibre Stress–strain Measurements  
9.2.4 Polymer Characterisation Studies
9.3.5 Viscoelastic and Rheological Properties 
9.3.6 Gel Time Measurement 
10 Microthermal Analysis  
10.1 Theoretical Considerations  
10.2 Atomic Force Microscopy 
10.3 Instrumentation  
10.4 Applications 
10.4.1 Morphology
10.4.2 Topography Studies
10.4.3 Depth Profiling  
10.4.4 Glass Transition
11 Differential Photocalorimetry 
11.1 Theoretical Considerations  
11.2 Instrumentation  
11.3 Applications 
11.3.1 Photocure Rates
11.3.2 Degree of Cure 
11.3.3 Dependence of Reactivity upon Functionalisation
11.3.3.1 Influence of Wavelength 
11.3.3.2 Influence of Photoinitiator Concentration  
11.3.3.3 Influence of Humidity 
11.3.4 Miscellaneous Applications 
12 Dielectric Thermal Analysis 
12.1 Theoretical Considerations  
12.2 Applications 
12.2.1 Resin Cure Studies  
12.2.2 Viscoelastic and Rheological Properties 
12.2.2.1 Flow and Cure of an Aerospace Adhesive 
12.2.2.2 Influence of Thermal History on Nylon 
12.2.3 Thermal Transitions
12.2.4 Polymer Characterisation 
13 Resin Cure Studies 
13.1 Techniques  
13.1.1 Differential Photocalorimetry
13.1.2 Dielectric Thermal Analysis
13.1.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
13.1.4 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis  
14 Thermal Degradation Mechanisms 
14.1 Theoretical Considerations  
14.2 Pyrolysis – Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry  
14.2.1 Polypropylene Carbonate Decomposition 
14.2.2 Polyisobutylene Decomposition 
14.2.3 Polystyrene Decompositions  
14.2.4 Nitrogen Containing Polymers 
14.2.5 Sulfur Containing Polymers 
14.2.6 Miscellaneous Polymers 
14.3 Pyrolysis–FT-IR Spectroscopy  
14.4 Derivitisation–Pyrolysis–Mass Spectrometry
14.5 Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetry
14.6 Pyrolysis – Mass Spectrometry (Without an Intervening Chromatographic Stage)
14.7 Examination of Thermal Stability  
Appendix 1
Abbreviations
Index 

 

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