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Home » Books » Polymers and Plastics » Chemistry - Polymer Types » Polystyrene

 
Food Industry and Packaging Materials - Performance-oriented Guidelines for Users


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Food Industry and Packaging Materials - Performance-oriented Guidelines for Users
Author: Salvatore Parisi
ISBN 9781847356093

Published: 2013
page 398

Price: $205.00 + S&H
  • Summary
  • Table of Contents
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Quality inspection of packaging materials is a difficult task for food producers because the technical tests for packaging are mainly designed to measure the 'performance' of materials in relation to their chemical formulation, processing data and intended uses. This may be difficult for food producers because their knowledge is essentially orientated to the performance of the final products (the packaged food).

However, the assessment of the suitability of food packaging materials has to be legally demonstrated by food producers in the European Union.

This book provides detailed and comprehensible information about Quality Control (QC) in the industry. Different viewpoints are explained in relation to food companies, packaging producers and technical experts, including regulatory aspects. One of the most important steps is the comprehension of QC failures in relation to the ‘food product’ (food/packaging).

The book also presents a detailed selection of proposals about new testing methods. On the basis of regulatory obligations in the EU about the technological suitability of food packaging materials, a list of ‘performance-oriented’ guidelines is proposed. Food sectors are mentioned in relation to products, related packaging materials, known failures and existing quality control procedures.

This volume serves as a practical guide on food packaging and QC methods and a quick reference to food operators, official safety inspectors, public health institutions, Certification bodies, students and researchers from the academia and the industry.

1 The Essential Role of Quality Control Procedures: General Principles .
1.1 Basic Concepts for Quality Control  
1.1.1 Quality in the Food and Beverage Field 
1.1.2 Quality: Management Systems and Control-based Procedures 
1.2 Statistical Consideration: Sampling Plans  
1.2.1 Influence of Numbers  
1.2.2 Influence of Analytical Results 
1.3 Quality Control and Economic Sustainability 
1.4 The Quality Control Team: Organisation, Duties and Responsibilities 

2 Differences between Food Companies and Other Industries: Safety Concepts  
2.1 Quality in the Food Industry: Hazard Analysis and Critical 
Control Points and Different Risk Levels  
2.2 Quality in Chemical Industries: The Analytical Approach 
2.3 Quality in Manufacturing Industries: The Packaging  
2.4 Theory of Food Packaging and Practical Considerations
2.5 Quality in Packaging Industries: Hybrid Testing Methods  

3 Food Industries: Chemistry, Microbiology and Safety of Related Products 
3.1 Chemistry of Food Products - General Considerations  
3.1.1 Food Technology of Commerce - Standardisation of Production, Packing and Storage Processes
3.1.2 Relation between Sensory Features and Chemical Composition  
3.1.3 Preventive Definition of Chemical and Microbiological Modifications  
3.1.4 Evaluation of Food Products - Chemical Contamination 
3.2 Microbiology of Food Products - Technological Implications 
3.3 Microbiology and Safety 
3.3.1 Microbiological Quality: Microbial Markers 
3.3.2 Pathogenic Bacteria  
3.4 Other Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Risks 
3.5 Food Alterations: The Problem of Shelf Life Assessment 

4 Packaging Industries: Chemistry and Technology of Packaging Materials 
4.1 Plastic Packaging  
4.2 Metal Packaging 
4.2.1 Metal Packages: General Features  
4.2.2 Metal Packaging: Production and Technology 
4.2.3 Metal Packages: The Metallic Support 
4.2.4 Plastic Coatings 
4.3 Paper and Paper-based Packaging 
4.4 Glass-based Packages  
4.5 Coupled Packages 
4.6 Smart and Intelligent Packages  
4.6.1 Active Packages 
4.6.2 Intelligent Packages  

5 Packaging and Processing Methods in the Food Industry: Most Common Failures 
5.1 Vegetables and Canned Foods 
5.1.1 Plastic Packages 
5.1.2 Metal Packages  
5.1.3 Paper and Paper-based Packages  
5.1.4 Glass Packages 
5.1.5 Polycoupled Packages  
5.1.6 Smart Packages  
5.2 Meat Foods 
5.2.1 Plastic Packages 
5.2.2 Metal Packages  
5.2.3 Paper and Paper-based Packages  
5.2.4 Glass Packages 
5.2.5 Coupled Packages  
5.2.6 Smart and Intelligent Packages 
5.3 Dairy Products  
5.3.1 Plastic Packages 
5.3.2 Metal Packages  
5.3.3 Paper and Paper-based Packages  
5.3.4 Glass Packages 
5.3.5 Coupled Packages  
5.4 Fish Products  
5.4.1 Plastic Packages  
5.4.2 Metal Packages  
5.4.3 Paper and Paper-based Packages  
5.4.4 Glass Packages 
5.4.5 Coupled Packages  
5.5 Other Food Products  

6 Analytical Methods for Food Products  
6.1 Chemical Analyses  
6.1.1 The Evaluation of Chemical Risks 
6.2 Microbiological Analyses  
6.2.1 Total Viable Count 
6.2.2 Food Alterations: Microbial Markers  
6.2.3 Pathogenic Microorganisms  
6.3 Detection of Foreign Substances 
6.4 Evaluation of Shelf Life Values  

7 Analytical and Testing Methods for Food Packaging  
7.1 Chemical Analyses  
7.2 Mechanical Tests 
7.3 Thermal Testing - Sterilisation and Other Treatments 
7.4 Other Simple Testing Methods  

8 Legal Requirements for Food Products and Packaging Materials in the European Union 
8.1 Food Products - Hygiene and Safety Requirements in the European Union  
8.2 Food Packaging - Legal Requirements in the European Union  

9 Conceptual Barriers between Packaging Producers and Food Industries: 
Proposals for a ‘Second Level’ Quality Control  
9.1 Food Operators and their Competence in Packaging
9.2 Collaborative Design of Packaging Materials  
9.3 Food Industries Needs New Approaches about Quality Control for Accessory Materials 

10 Food Packaging for Dairy Products  
10.1 Visually Detectable Failures: Chemical and Physical Causes 
10.1.1 Food Packaging Failures and Food Products: A Short Discussion about the Assessment of Technological Suitability  
10.1.2 Food Packaging Failures and Food Products: Sampling Plans and Simplified Advice 
10.1.3 Food Packaging Failures and Dairy Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Plastic Packages  
10.1.3.1 Defective Closure and Sealing (Different Causes and Damages) . 
10.1.3.2 Migration of Macroscopic and Microscopic Bodies and Particles from Food Packaging Materials to Foods (Different Causes and Damages)  
10.1.3.3 Migration of Printing Inks (Ghosting Effect and Similar Situations)  
10.1.3.4 Superficial Damage and Ageing Correlation  
10.1.4 Food Packaging Failures and Dairy Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Metal Packages  
10.1.4.1 Superficial Damage, Microscopic Fractures, Scratches, Micro-bubbles and Dewetting. 
10.1.4.2 Presence of Foreign Bodies (Different Causes) 
10.1.4.3 Ghosting Effect 
10.1.4.4 Different Colorimetric Variations  
10.1.4.5 Workability Failures  
10.1.5 Food Packaging Failures and Dairy Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Paper and Paper-based Packages  
10.1.5.1 Excessive Rigidity of Cellulosic Materials 
10.1.5.2 Colorimetric Variations  
10.1.5.3 Paper Wrinkling  
10.1.5.4 Ghosting Effect  
10.1.5.5 Bleeding Effect 
10.1.5.6 Adhesion Defects (or Excessive Dripping)  
10.1.5.7 Paper Pulverisation 
10.1.5.8 Final Thoughts about Paper Food Packaging Materials  
10.1.6 Food Packaging Failures and Dairy Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Glass-based Packages 
10.1.6.1 Micro-bubbling 
10.1.6.2 Scratches 
10.1.6.3 Micro Fractures  
10.1.6.4 Macro Fractures  
10.1.6.5 Final Considerations: Other Failures  
10.2 Microbiological Contamination  
10.3 Hybrid Tests 
10.3.1 A Necessary Premise  
10.3.2 Workability Testing Methods  
10.3.2.1 Abrasion Test according to Parisi - Method for the Evaluation of the Laceration of Rigid Boxes for MAP Packed Cheeses 
10.3.2.1.1 Objective  
10.3.2.1.2 Preliminary Note  
10.3.2.1.3 Materials 
10.3.2.1.4 Method 
10.3.2.1.5 Evaluation of Results  
10.3.2.1.6 Final Observations  
10.3.3 ‘Performance’ Estimation for Integrated Food Products 
10.3.3.1 Evaluation of Hydric Apparent Absorption and Related Modifications in Packed Cheeses with Different Food Packaging Materials (Comparison Test) 
10.3.3.1.1 Objective  
10.3.3.1.2 Preliminary Note 
10.3.3.1.3 Materials 
10.3.3.1.4 Method 
10.3.3.1.5 Evaluation of Results  
10.3.3.1.6 Final Observations  
10.3.4 Estimation of Shelf Life for Integrated Food Products (Comparison Test) 
10.3.4.1 Variation of Shelf Life Values in Packed, Semi-hard Cheeses in Relation to the Use of Different Food Packaging Materials 
10.3.4.1.1 Objective 
10.3.4.1.2 Preliminary Note  
10.3.4.1.3 Materials 
10.3.4.1.4 Method 
10.3.4.1.5 Evaluation of Results  
10.3.4.1.5.1 Variation of Shelf Life in Comparison with the Theoretical and Calculated Value
10.3.4.1.5.2 Variation of Shelf Life: Differences between R- and N-Products without Theoretical Durability 
10.3.4.1.6 Final Observations
10.4 Digital Image Analysis and Processing 
10.4.1 Colorimetry 
10.4.2 Digital Acquisition and Interpretation of Pictures 
10.4.3 Image Analysis and Processing - Decomposition of the Real Image in R, G and B Colour Components and Analysis of Light Intensity 
10.4.4 Image Analysis and Processing - Analysis of B, L or V Data by Means of Pixel Frequency Histograms 
10.4.5 Image Analysis and Processing: Practical Examples
10.4.5.1 Decomposition of the Real Image in R, G and B Colour Components and Analysis of Light Intensity 
10.4.5.2 Analysis of B, L or V Data by Means of Pixel Frequency Histograms 

11 Food Packaging for Meat and Meat-based Foods 
11.1 Visually Detectable Failures: Chemical and Physical Causes 
11.1.1 Food Packaging Failures and Meat Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Plastic Packages 
11.1.1.1 Superficial Damage and Correlation with Ageing 
11.1.1.2 Foreign Bodies and Incrustations on Food Packaging Material Surfaces 
11.1.1.3 Superposition of One or More Printing Inks on Other Printed Images and the Ghosting Effect
11.1.1.4 Possible Fractures of Edible and Plastic Casings 
11.1.2 Food Packaging Failures and Meat Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Metal Packages 
11.1.2.1 Superficial Damages, Microscopic Fractures, Scratches, Micro-bubbles, Dewetting
11.1.2.2 External Lithography and Related Defects 
11.1.3 Food Packaging Failures and Meat Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Paper and Paper-Based Packages 
11.1.3.1 Colorimetric Variations 
11.1.3.2 Paper Pulverisation  
11.1.4 Food Packaging Failures and Meat Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Glass-Based Packages 
11.1.4.1 Micro-bubbling 
11.2 Microbiological Contamination  
11.3 Hybrid Tests 
11.3.1 Workability Testing Methods 
11.3.1.1 Method for the Evaluation of Impact Resistance of Infrangible Glass Containers (Final Use: Pasteurised Meat Preparations) 
11.3.1.1.1 Objective 
11.3.1.1.2 Preliminary Note 
11.3.1.1.3 Materials 
11.3.1.1.4 Method 
11.3.1.1.5 Evaluation of Results 
11.3.1.1.6 Final Observations 
11.3.2 ‘Performance’ Estimation for Integrated Food Products
11.3.3 Estimation of the Shelf Life for Integrated Meat Products (Comparison Test) 
11.3.3.1 Variation of Shelf Life Values in Modified Atmosphere Packaging Fresh Meats with the Use of Different Food Packaging Materials 
11.3.3.1.1 Objective  
11.3.3.1.2 Preliminary Note 
11.3.3.1.3 Materials 
11.3.3.1.4 Method 
11.3.3.1.5 Evaluation of Results 
11.3.3.1.5.1 Variation of Shelf Life in Comparison with the Theoretical and Calculated Value
11.3.3.1.5.2 Variation of Shelf Life: Differences between R- and N-Products without Theoretical Durability 
11.3.3.1.6 Final Observations

12 Food Packaging for Fish Products 
12.1 Visually Detectable Failures - Chemical and Physical Causes 
12.1.1 Food Packaging Failures and Fish Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Plastic Packages 
12.1.1.1 Superficial Damage and Correlation with Ageing 
12.1.1.2 Foreign Bodies and Incrustations on Food Packaging Material Surfaces 
12.1.1.3 Superposition of One or More Printing Inks on Other Printed Images and the Ghosting Effect 
12.1.1.4 Micro-bubbling and Bursting  
12.1.2 Food Packaging Failures and Fish Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Metal Packages  
12.1.2.1 Canned Fish and Vegetable Products - Specific Colorimetric Variations
12.1.3 Food Packaging Failures and Fish Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Paper and Paper-based Packages 
12.1.4 Food Packaging Failures and Fish Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Glass-based Packages 
12.2 Microbiological Contamination 
12.3 Hybrid Tests 
12.3.1 Workability Testing Methods 
12.3.1.1 Delamination Test on Sealable Polycoupled Packages (Easy Peel Pouches) for Tuna Fish 
in Water 
12.3.1.1.1 Objective 
12.3.1.1.2 Preliminary Note 
12.3.1.1.3 Materials 
12.3.1.1.4 Method 
12.3.1.1.5 Evaluation of Results 
12.3.1.1.6 Final Observations 
12.3.2 ‘Performance’ Estimation for Integrated Food Products 
12.3.3 Estimation of Shelf Life for Integrated Fish Products (Comparison Test) 
12.3.3.1 Variation of Shelf Life Values in Vacuum Packed and Frozen Fish in Relation to the 
Use of Different Food Packaging Materials 
12.3.3.1.1 Objective 
12.3.3.1.2 Preliminary Note  
12.3.3.1.3 Materials 
12.3.3.1.4 Method 
12.3.3.1.5 Evaluation of Results 
12.3.3.1.5.1 Variation of Shelf Life in Comparison with the Theoretical and Calculated Value  
12.3.3.1.5.2 Variation of Shelf Life: Differences between R- and N-Products without Theoretical Durability 
12.3.3.1.6 Final Observations 

13 Food Packaging for Fruits, Vegetables and Canned Foods  
13.1 Visually Detectable Failures - Chemical and Physical Causes 
13.1.1 Food Packaging Failures and Vegetable Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Plastic Packages  
13.1.2 Food Packaging Failures and Vegetable Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Metal Packages 
13.1.2.1 Specific Colorimetric Variations 
13.1.3 Food Packaging Failures and Vegetable Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Paper and Paper-Based Packages 
13.1.4 Food Packaging Failures and Vegetable Products - Visually Detectable Failures: Glass-based Packages 
13.2 Microbiological Contamination 
13.3 Hybrid Tests 
13.3.1 Workability Testing Methods 
13.3.1.1 Sterilisation Test on Metal Cans for Double Concentrated Tomato Sauce 
13.3.1.1.1 Objective 
13.3.1.1.2 Preliminary Note 
13.3.1.1.3 Materials 
13.3.1.1.4 Method 
13.3.1.1.5 Evaluation of Results 
13.3.1.1.6 Final Observations 
13.3.2 ‘Performance’ Estimation for Integrated Food Products 
13.3.3 Estimation of Shelf Life for Integrated Products (Comparison Test) 
13.3.3.1 Variation of Shelf Life Values in Canned Peas with Reference to the Use of Different Food Packaging Materials
13.3.3.1.1 Objective
13.3.3.1.2 Preliminary Note 
13.3.3.1.3 Materials 
13.3.3.1.4 Method 
13.3.3.1.5 Evaluation of Results 
13.3.3.1.6 Final Observations 

14 Food Packaging for Other Food Products 
14.1 Visually Detectable Failures - Chemical and Physical Causes 
14.1.1 Smart Packages 
14.1.1.1 ‘Performance’ Estimation for Integrated Food Products: Active Packaging Materials, Moisture Scavengers (High Sensibility)
14.1.1.1.1 Objective  
14.1.1.1.2 Materials 
14.1.1.1.3 Method 
14.1.1.1.4 Evaluation of Results 
14.1.1.2 ‘Performance’ Estimation for Integrated Food Products: Active Packaging Materials, Moisture Scavengers (Low Sensibility) 
14.1.1.2.1 Objective 
14.1.1.2.2 Materials  
14.1.1.2.3 Method 
14.1.1.2.4 Evaluation of Results 
14.2 Microbiological Contamination 
14.3 Hybrid Tests 

15 Conclusions 
15.1 Food Producers Will Need More Training  
15.2 Will Official Regulations Follow Voluntary Testing Methods?  
15.3 Performance-Oriented Guidelines - Perspectives for Advanced Training in Academia  
15.4 The Viewpoint of Certification Bodies 
Appendix 1 List of Accredited Organisations with Recognised Authority 
(Analytical Testing Methods)
Abbreviations  
Index 

 

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