This volume describes the state-of-the-art advances regarding antifouling paint biocides and provides thorough evaluation of research and information on major topics such as occurrence and levels, environmental fate, analytical techniques and methods for the monitoring and control, environmental modeling, ecotoxicological effects and risk assessment placing emphasis on the knowledge acquired over the last 10 years. The contamination of the aquatic environment by antifouling compounds has been a topic of increasing importance during the last few years.
The major classes of antifouling active biocides are discussed including the old-fashioned organotin compounds, the modern organic booster biocides and the promising naturally occurring antifoulant products. Therefore, the reader will get a balanced view of this developing field. Chapters were written by leading experts in their field who critically surveyed all the major areas of progress. This volume is an important resource and can constitute a good grounding in the field of antifouling paint biocides.
J.W. Readman: Development, Occurrence and Regulation of Antifouling Paint Biocides: Historical Review and Future Trends.- I. Omae: Chemistry and Fate of Organotin Antifouling Biocides in the Environment.- C. Brunori, I. Ipolyi, P. Massanisso, R. Morabito: New Trends in Sample Preparation Methods for the Determination of Organotin Compounds in Marine Matrices.- K. Fent: Worldwide Occurrence and Effects of Organotin Antifouling Paints in the Aquatic Environment.- B. van Hattum, A. Baart, J. Boon: Emission Estimation and Chemical Fate Modelling of Antifoulants.- A. Aguera, M.D. Hernado, A. Fernandez-Alba, D. Barcelo: Evaluation of Antifouling Booster Biocides in Marine Water and Sediments based on Mass Spectrometric Techniques.- N. Voulvoulis: Antifouling Paint Booster Biocides: Occurrence and Partitioning in Water and Sediments.- V.A. Sakkas, I.K. Konstantinou, T.A. Albanis: Photochemical Fate of Organic Booster Biocides in the Aquatic Environment.- H. Okamura, H. Mieno: Present Status of the Antifouling Systems in Japan: TBT Substitutes in Japan.- H. Yamada: Toxicity and Preliminary Risk Assessment of Alternative Antifouling Biocides to Aquatic Organisms.- I. Omae: General Aspects of Natural Products Antifoulants in the Environment