List of Contributors.
1 Polyesters (Adam L. Sisson, Michael Schroeter, and Andreas Lendlein).
1.1 Historical Background.
1.2 Preparative Methods.
1.3 Physical Properties.
1.4 Degradation Mechanisms.
1.5 Beyond Classical Poly(Hydroxycarboxylic Acids).
2 Biotechnologically Produced Biodegradable Polyesters (Jaciane Lutz Ienczak and Gláucia Maria Falcão de Aragão).
2.3 Polyhydroxyalkanoates – Granules Morphology.
2.4 Biosynthesis and Biodegradability of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) and Other Polyhydroxyalkanoates.
2.5 Extraction and Recovery.
2.6 Physical, Mechanical, and Thermal Properties of Polyhydroxyalkanoates.
2.7 Future Directions.
3 Polyanhydrides (Avi Domb, Jay Prakash Jain, and Neeraj Kumar).
3.2 Types of Polyanhydride.
3.5 In Vitro Degradation and Erosion of Polyanhydrides.
3.6 In Vivo Degradation and Elimination of Polyanhydrides.
3.7 Toxicological Aspects of Polyanhydrides.
3.8 Fabrication of Delivery Systems.
3.9 Production and World Market.
3.10 Biomedical Applications.
4 Poly(Ortho Esters) (Jorge Heller).
4.2 POE II.
4.3 POE IV.
4.4 Solid Polymers.
4.5 Gel-Like Materials.
4.6 Polymers Based on an Alternate Diketene Acetal.
5 Biodegradable Polymers Composed of Naturally Occurring α-Amino Acids (Ramaz Katsarava and Zaza Gomurashvili).
5.2 Amino Acid-Based Biodegradable Polymers (AABBPs).
5.3 Conclusion and Perspectives.
6 Biodegradable Polyurethanes and Poly(ester amide)s (Alfonso Rodríguez-Galán, Lourdes Franco, and Jordi Puiggalí).
6.1 Chemistry and Properties of Biodegradable Polyurethanes.
6.2 Biodegradation Mechanisms of Polyurethanes.
6.3 Applications of Biodegradable Polyurethanes.
6.4 New Polymerization Trends to Obtain Degradable Polyurethanes.
6.5 Aliphatic Poly(ester amide)s: A Family of Biodegradable Thermoplastics with Interest as New Biomaterials.
7 Carbohydrates (Gerald Dräger, Andreas Krause, Lena Möller, and Severian Dumitriu).
7.4 Cellulose and Its Derivatives.
7.5 Microbial Cellulose.
7.6 Chitin and Chitosan.
7.9 Guar Gum.
7.10 Hyaluronic Acid (Hyaluronan).
8 Biodegradable Shape-Memory Polymers (Marc Behl, Jörg Zotzmann, Michael Schroeter, and Andreas Lendlein).
8.2 General Concept of SMPs.
8.3 Classes of Degradable SMPs.
8.4 Applications of Biodegradable SMPs.
9 Biodegradable Elastic Hydrogels for Tissue Expander Application (Thanh Huyen Tran, John Garner, Yourong Fu, Kinam Park, and Kang Moo Huh).
9.2 Synthesis of Elastic Hydrogels.
9.3 Physical Properties of Elastic Hydrogels.
9.4 Applications of Elastic Hydrogels.
9.5 Elastic Hydrogels for Tissue Expander Applications.
10 Biodegradable Dendrimers and Dendritic Polymers (Jayant Khandare and Sanjay Kumar).
10.2 Challenges for Designing Biodegradable Dendrimers.
10.3 Design of Self-Immolative Biodegradable Dendrimers.
10.4 Biological Implications of Biodegradable Dendrimers.
10.5 Future Perspectives of Biodegradable Dendrimers.
10.6 Concluding Remarks.
11 Analytical Methods for Monitoring Biodegradation Processes of Environmentally Degradable Polymers (Maarten van der Zee).
11.2 Some Background.
11.3 Defi ning Biodegradability.
11.4 Mechanisms of Polymer Degradation.
11.5 Measuring Biodegradation of Polymers.
12 Modeling and Simulation of Microbial Depolymerization Processes of Xenobiotic Polymers (Masaji Watanabe and Fusako Kawai).
12.2 Analysis of Exogenous Depolymerization.
12.3 Materials and Methods.
12.4 Analysis of Endogenous Depolymerization.
13 Regenerative Medicine: Reconstruction of Tracheal and Pharyngeal Mucosal Defects in Head and Neck Surgery (Dorothee Rickert, Bernhard Hiebl, Rosemarie Fuhrmann, Friedrich Jung, Andreas Lendlein, and Ralf-Peter Franke).
13.2 Regenerative Medicine for the Reconstruction of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract.
13.3 Methods and Novel Therapeutical Options in Head and Neck Surgery.
13.4 Vascularization of Tissue-Engineered Constructs.
13.5 Application of Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine.
14 Biodegradable Polymers as Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering (Yoshito Ikada).
14.2 Short Overview of Regenerative Biology.
14.3 Minimum Requirements for Tissue Engineering.
14.4 Structure of Scaffolds.
14.5 Biodegradable Polymers for Tissue Engineering.
14.6 Some Examples for Clinical Application of Scaffold.
15 Drug Delivery Systems (Kevin M. Shakesheff).
15.2 The Clinical Need for Drug Delivery Systems.
15.3 Poly(α-Hydroxyl Acids).
15.5 Manufacturing Routes.
15.6 Examples of Biodegradable Polymer Drug Delivery Systems Under Development.
15.7 Concluding Remarks.
16 Oxo-biodegradable Polymers: Present Status and Future Perspectives (Emo Chiellini, Andrea Corti, Salvatore D’Antone, and David Mckeen Wiles).
16.2 Controlled – Lifetime Plastics.
16.3 The Abiotic Oxidation of Polyolefins.
16.4 Enhanced Oxo-biodegradation of Polyolefins.
16.5 Processability and Recovery of Oxo-biodegradable Polyolefins.
16.6 Concluding Remarks.
Andreas Lendlein is Director of the Institute of Polymer Research at Helmholtz-Zentrum
Geesthacht in Teltow, Germany, and serves on the Board of Directors of the Berlin-Brandenburg
Center for Regenerative Therapies, Berlin. He is Professor for Materials in Life Sciences
at University of Potsdam and Professor in Chemistry at the Freie Universitat Berlin as well as
member of the medical faculty of Charite University Medicine Berlin. His research interests in
macromolecular chemistry and material science are polymer-based biomaterials with special
emphasis given to multifunctional materials, stimuli-sensitive polymers, especially shape-memory
polymers, and biomimetic polymers. Furthermore, he explores potential applications of
such biomaterials in biofunctional implants, controlled drug delivery systems, and regenerative
therapies. He completed his habilitation in Macromolecular Chemistry in 2002 at the RWTH
Aachen University, worked as a visiting scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
and received his doctoral degree in Materials Science from Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
(ETH) in Zurich in 1996. Andreas Lendlein received more than 20 awards for his scientifi c
work, and his achievements as an entrepreneur including the BioFUTURE Award in 1998, the
2000 Hermann-Schnell Award and the World Technology Network Award in the category
Health & Medicine in 2005. He has published more than 220 papers in journals and books,
and is an inventor of more than 250 published patents and patent applications.
Adam Sisson received his PhD in Supramolecular Chemistry in 2005 under the guidance of
Professor Anthony Davis at the University of Bristol, UK. Following this, he moved into the
group of Professor Stefan Matile at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, to conduct postdoctoral
research in self-assembling nanomaterials. In 2007 he embarked upon research into
polymeric nanogels as an Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung sponsored research fellow with
Professor Rainer Haag at the Free University of Berlin, Germany. Since 2010 he is leading a
Junior research group ?Cell and Tissue Specifi c Materials? at the Berlin-Brandenburg Center
for Regenerative Therapies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht in Teltow, Germany. His research
interests focus on studying and manipulating the interactions of synthetic materials with various
biological moieties in a range of applications.