Volume 1 of this encyclopedia focuses on polymers consisting of aromatic constituents occurring in plants and natural environments or as fossil resources. Polymers included are: lignin, melanin, sporopollenin, soil humic substances, aquatic humic substances, coal, other polyphenols and related compounds. This volume comprehensively describes and summarizes the structures and the methods for revealing them. Other topics include: biosynthesis and formation, biodegradation, biotransformations of humic acids, properties, applications, desulfurization of coal, modification of coal, biotechnological conversion of coals into products, chemical conversion of coal into products.
Occurrence, Function and Biosynthesis of Lignins (B. Monties & K. Fukushima).
Synthesis of Lignin in Transgenic and Mutant Plants (J. Dean).
Methods to Reveal the Structure of Lignin (G. Brunow).
Applications and Use of Lignin as Raw Material (P. Wünning).
Biodegradation of Lignin (A. Hatakka).
Biotechnological Applications of Lignin-Degrading Fungi (White-Rot Fungi) (G. Scott & M. Akhtar).
Sporopollenin (R. Wiermann, et al.).
Melanin (J. Henson).
Soil Humic Substances (N. Senesi & E. Loffredo).
Aquatic Humic Substances (F. Frimmel).
Methods to Reveal the Structure of Humic Substances (A. Amblès).
Biodegradation of Humic Substances (M. Kästner & M. Hofrichter).
Medical Aspects and Applications of Humic Substances (R. Klöcking & B. Helbig).
Microbial Degradation and Modification of Coal (M. Hofrichter & R. Fakoussa).
Desulfurization of Coal (B. Bogenschneider, et al.).
Biotechnological Conversion of Coals into Upgraded Products (H. Meyrahn & A. Steinbüchel).
Chemical Conversion of Coals into Products (H. Schmiers).