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Home » Books » Polymers and Plastics » Chemical Characterization » Identification

 
Industry Guide to Polymer Nanocomposites


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Industry Guide to Polymer Nanocomposites
Author: Dr GŁnter Beyer (Editor)
ISBN 978-1-90647-904-6

Published: 2009
386 pages, Hardback

Price: $200.00 + S&H
  • Summary
  • Table of Contents
  •  
  • Related Publications
A truly practical guide, which aims to cut through the hype and show where these new ‘wonder materials’ will really fit into your industry and products.

The editor has drawn together contributions from academics, materials suppliers, product manufacturers, NASA and the US army, which show how these materials really perform, and where they are already finding uses. Flame retardancy and barrier properties are key benefits.

Performance however is only part of the story. To achieve commercial success new materials must also deliver these properties safely and predictably. Processing is a key issue when investment in new equipment may not be an option. There are questions regarding the health impacts of all nanoscale particles. All these topics and more are covered in the following sections:

• Developments in Commercial Polymer Nanocomposite Materials

• Working with Polymer Nanocomposite Materials

• Unique Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites

• Polymer Nanocomposites in Demanding Industrial Applications

Introduction  
Developments in Commercial Polymer Nanocomposite Materials  

1. Synthesis, structure, properties and characterization of organically modified clay minerals by Hendrik Heinz, University of Akron, USA  

1.1 Overview of clay minerals  
1.2 Synthesis of organically modifi ed clay minerals  
1.3 Structure of organically modifi ed clay minerals  
1.3.1 Eff ect of cation density on the surface and the inorganic interface  
1.3.2 Low packing density  
1.3.3 Medium packing density  
1.3.4 High packing density  
1.3.5 Non-quantitative ion exchange  
1.4 Characterization and properties of organically modified clay minerals  
1.4.1 X-ray diff raction, microscopy, and structural properties  
1.4.2 DSC, DTG, thermal transitions, and thermal decomposition  
1.4.3 IR/Raman spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and chain conformation  
1.4.4 Dielectric, elastic, and tilt angle measurements  
1.4.5 Surface tension measurements and cleavage energies  

2. Polymer nanocomposites formulated with hectorite nanoclays by Günter Beyer, Kabelwerk Eupen AG, Eupen, Belgium  

2.1 Introduction  
2.2 Thermal stability of hectorite-based nanoclays and nanocomposites  
2.2.1 Nanoclay stability  
2.2.2. Effect of the nanoclay on the degradation process of the matrix polymer  
2.2.3 Thermal stability of the produced nanocomposites  
2.3 Flame Retardant properties of hectorite-based nanocomposites  
2.4 Barrier properties of hectorite-based nanocomposites  
2.5 Nanocomposite foams formulated with hectorite nanoclay  
2.6 Nanoclay dispersion in thermoplastics  

3. Polymer nanocomposites based on carbon nanotubes by Olivier Decroly, Nanocyl SA, Sambreville, Belgium  

3.1 Introduction  
3.2 Carbon nanotube nanocomposites  
3.2.1 Conductive Carbon nanotube nanocomposites  
3.2.2 Structural composite applications  
3.2.3 Coatings applications  
Working with Polymer Nanocomposite Materials  

4. Processing of polymer nanocomposites by Daniel Schmidt, Dept of Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts, USA  

4.1 What is processing and why is it necessary?  
4.2 What is needed to process a polymer nanocomposite?  
4.2.1 Enhancing polymer mobility  
4.2.2 Th e consequences of processing  
4.2.3 A balanced approach  
4.3 Does the polymer have to be a solid at room temperature?  
4.4 Do we need to start with a polymer at all?  
4.5 Can we do away with the pre-formed nanofi ller as well?  
4.6 What are our options as far as pre-formed nanofi llers?  
4.7 What makes a nanofi ller disperse in a particular polymer during processing?  
4.7.1 The thermodynamics of dispersion: entropy  
4.7.2 The thermodynamics of dispersion: enthalpy  
4.7.3 Complications: crystallinity  
4.7.4 Complications: multi-phase systems  
4.7.5 Achieving thermodynamic compatibility – practical considerations  
4.7.6 Th e kinetics of physical dispersion  
4.7.7 Dispersion kinetics in the presence of chemical reactions  
4.8 What should a “well-processed” polymer nanocomposite look like  
4.8.1 Th e realities of nanocomposite processing  
4.9 What are our options for nanocomposite processing?  
4.9.1 Th e importance of pre-processing  
4.10 What processing techniques involve just polymer and nanofi ller?  
4.10.1 Physical mixing/dry blending  
4.10.2 Compaction  
4.10.3 Solid state shear processing  
4.10.4 Melt blending  
4.11 What additional options do we have with solutions  
4.11.1 Physical mixing/“wet blending”  
4.12 What about reactive processing?  
4.13 Are there any additional considerations?  

5. Stabilisation of polymer nanocomposites by Rudolf Pfändner, Ciba Lampertheim GmbH, Lampertheim, Germany  

5.1 Introduction  
5.2 Challenges of stabilisation of fi lled polymers  
5.3 Processing and long-term thermal stabilisation of polymer nanocomposites  
5.4 Light stabilisation of polymer nanocomposites  
5.5 Summary and outlook  
List of stabilisers  

6. Toxicology of nanoparticles relevant to polymer by Paul Borm, Centre of Expertise Life Sciences (CEL), Hogeschool Zuyd, Heerlen, Netherlands  

6.1 Introduction  
6.2 Toxicological eff ects of nanoparticles  
6.2.1 Particle definitions  
6.2.2 Eff ects of nanoparticles upon inhalation  
6.3 Nanoparticles used in nanocomposites  
6.3.1 Carbon nanotubes  
6.3.2 Metal oxide particles  
6.3.3 Silica and organoclays  
6.4 Need for unifying concepts  

Unique Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites

 

7. Flame retardancy from polymer nanocomposites – from research to technical products by Günter Beyer, Kabelwerk Eupen AG, Eupen, Belgium  
7.1 Introduction  
7.2 Organoclay nanocomposites  
7.2.1 Processing and structure of EVA/organoclay-based nanocomposites  
7.2.2 Th ermal stability of EVA/organoclay-based nanocomposites  
7.2.3 Flammability properties of EVA/organoclay-based nanocomposites  
7.2.4 NMR investigation and FR mechanism of nanocomposites  
7.2.5 Intercalation versus exfoliation in EVA/organoclay-based nanocomposites  
7.2.6 Combination of the classical flame retardant filler ATH with organoclays  
7.3 Cable Applications  
7.3.1 Coaxial cable passing UL 1666 fi re test with an organoclay/ATH-based outer sheath  
7.3.2 Medium voltage cables with organoclay/ATH-based outer sheaths  
7.3.4 Energy cables passing prEN 50399 with an organoclay ATH-based outer sheath  
7.4 Synergistic effects with halogenated fl ame retardants  
7.5 Commercial examples of nanocomposite-based compounds  
7.6 Carbon nanotube composites  
7.6.1 General properties of carbon nanotubes  
7.6.2 Synthesis and purifi cation of CNTs  
7.6.3 Flammability of EVA/MWCNT compounds and EVA/MWCNT/organoclay compounds  
7.6.4 Crack density and surface results of charred MWCNT compounds  
7.6.5 Flammability of LDPE/CNT compounds  
7.6.6 Cable with the new fi re retardant system MWCNT/organoclay/ATH  
7.7 Outlook  

7.8 Summary

 

8. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane fl ame retardancy by Joseph Lichtenhan, Hybrid Plastics Inc., Hattiesburg, USA  
8.1 Introduction  
8.2 POSS chemical technology and unique features  
8.3 Successful use of POSS as a fi re retardant  
8.4 Conventional fi re retardants and POSS  
8.5 POSS and fi re-retardant coatings for textiles  
8.6 Commercial applications  
8.7 Conclusions  

9. Barrier property enhancement by polymer nanocomposites by Tie Lan and Ying Liang, Nanocor Inc., Hoffman Estates, USA  

9.1 Introduction  
9.1.1 Organoclay materials  
9.2 Formation of polymer-clay nanocomposites  

9.3 Nano-effects in barrier enhancement  

9.4 Summary  

10. Status of biodegradable polymer nanocomposites for industrial applications by Jo Ann Ratto, Christopher Thellen and Jean Lucciarini, US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Centre, USA  
10.1 Introduction  
10.2 Biodegradable polymers  
10.3 Nanocomposites  
10.3.1 Structure of montmorillonite layered silicates (MLS)  
10.3.2 Morphology of polymer/MLS nanocomposites  
10.4 Biodegradable nanocomposites  
10.5 Biodegradability  
10.5.1 A recent study of PHB nanocomposites  
10.6 Processability issues  
10.6.1 A recent study of PCL nanocomposites  
10.7 Attainable properties  
10.7.1 A recent study of PLA/PCL nanocomposites  
10.8 Performance data  
10.9 Commercially viable materials  
10.9.1 A recent study comparing biodegradable nanocomposites to polyethylene terephthalate (PET)  
10.10 Applications  
10.10.1 A recent patent on biodegradable polymeric nanocomposite compositions  
10.11 Th e future of biodegradable nanocomposites  
10.11.1 Life cycle assessment for biodegradable nanocomposites  
10.11.2 Safety of biodegradable nanocomposites  

10.12 Summary  

 

11 Thermal properties of polymers with graphitic nanofibres by Ernst Hammel, Andreas Eder and Xinhe Tang, Electorvac AB, Klosterneuburg, Austria  
11.1 Introduction  
11.2 Thermal Interface Materials  
11.3 Thermally Conductive Plastics  
11.4 Conclusions  
Polymer Nanocomposites in Demanding Industrial Applications  

12. Automotive industry applications of polymer nanocomposites by WIlliam Rodgers, General Motors Corp. Research and Development Center, Warren, USA  

12.1 Introduction  
12.2 Requirements for the automotive industry  
12.2.1 Surface appearance  
12.2.2 Measurement techniques  
12.2.3 Aspect Ratio  
12.2.4 Minimization of mass  
12.3 Manufacture of nanocomposite systems  
12.3.1 In-situ polymerization  
12.3.2 Melt processing  
12.3.3 Injection moulding  
12.4 Applications of nanocomposites in the automotive industry  
12.4.1 Applications using carbon nanotubes  
12.4.2 Applications of organoclay nanocomposites  
12.4.2.1 Underhood applications  
12.4.2.2 Exterior applications  
12.4.2.3 Interior applications  
12.5 The future of nanoclay composites  
12.5.1 Alternative conventional fi ller materials  
12.5.2 Exfoliation issues with olefi nic resins  
12.5.3 New nanomaterials  
12.6 Concluding remarks  
13. Polymer nanocomposites in aerospace applications by Michael Meador, NASA Glenn Research Centre, Cleveland, USA  
3.1 Background  
12.3.2 Melt processing  
12.3.3 Injection moulding  
12.4 Applications of nanocomposites in the automotive industry  
12.4.1 Applications using carbon nanotubes  
12.4.2 Applications of organoclay nanocomposites  
12.4.2.1 Underhood applications  
12.4.2.2 Exterior applications  
12.4.2.3 Interior applications  
12.5 The future of nanoclay composites  
12.5.1 Alternative conventional fi ller materials  
12.5.2 Exfoliation issues with olefi nic resins  
12.5.3 New nanomaterials  
12.6 Concluding remarks  

13. Polymer nanocomposites in aerospace applications by Michael Meador, NASA Glenn Research Centre, Cleveland, USA  

13.1 Background  
13.2 Clays  
13.2.1 Background  
13.2.2 Cryotanks  
13.2.2.1 Permeability  
13.2.2.2 Toughness  
13.2.3 Other structures  
13.3 Carbon-based nanostructured additives  
13.3.1 Carbon nanotubes  
13.3.1.1 Synthesis methods  
13.3.1.2 Purification  
13.3.1.3 Functionalization  
13.3.2 Carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites  
13.3.2.1 Electrical and thermal conductivity  
13.3.2.2 Mechanical properties  
13.3.3 Carbon nanotube-based fi bres  
13.3.4 Other nanoscale carbon additives  
13.3.4.1 Expanded graphite and nanocomposites  
13.3.4.2 Graphite oxides and nanocomposites  
13.3.4.3 Functionalized graphene sheets and nanocomposites  
13.4 Conclusions  
Glossary of materials and techniques referred to within this chapter  
References  
Appendix  
Glossary of abbreviations  
Index

 

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