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Home » Books » Polymers and Plastics » Chemistry - Polymer Types » ABS

 
Polymer Reference Book


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Polymer Reference Book
Author: T.R. Crompton
ISBN 978-1-85957-492-8

Published: 2006

Pages: 704

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Cover option: Hard Cover (ISBN 978-1-85957-492-8) (+$100.00)
Softcover (ISBN 978-1-85957-509-3)

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  • Summary
  • Table of Contents
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This book describes the types of techniques now available to the polymer chemist and technician, and discusses their capabilities, limitations and applications. All types of modern instrumentation are covered including those used in general quality control, research analysis, process monitoring and for determining the mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical characteristics. Aspects such as automated analysis and computerised control of instruments are also included.

The book covers not only instrumentation for the determination of metals, non metals, functional groups, polymer structural analysis and end-groups in the main types of polymers now in use commercially, but also the analysis of minor non-polymeric components of the polymer formulation, whether they be deliberately added, such as processing additives, or whether they occur adventitiously, such as residual volatiles and monomers and water. Fingerprinting techniques for the rapid identification of polymers and methods for the examination of polymer surfaces and polymer defects are also discussed.

The book gives an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the present state-of-the-art of the theory and availability of instrumentation needed to effect chemical and physical analysis of polymers. Over 1,800 references are included. The book should be of great interest to all those who are engaged in the examination of polymers in industry, university research establishments and general education. The book is intended for all staff who are concerned with instrumentation in the polymer laboratory, including laboratory designers, work planners, chemists, engineers, chemical engineers and those concerned with the implementation of specifications and process control.

Preface
1 Determination of Metals
1.1 Destructive Techniques
1.1.1 Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
1.1.2 Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
1.1.3 Atom Trapping Technique
1.1.4 Vapour Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
1.1.5 Zeeman Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
1.1.6 Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry
1.1.7 Hybrid Inductively Coupled Plasma Techniques
1.1.8 Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry–Mass Spectrometry
1.1.9 Pre-concentration Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Techniques
1.1.10 Microprocessors
1.11 Autosamplers
1.1.12 Applications: Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Metals
1.1.13 Visible and UV Spectroscopy
1.1.14 Polarography and Voltammetry
1.1.15 Ion Chromatography
1.2 Non-destructive Methods
1.2.1 X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
1.2.2 Neutron Activation Analysis
2 Non-metallic Elements
2.1 Instrumentation: Furnace Combustion Methods
2.1.1 Halogens
2.1.2 Sulfur
2.1.3 Total Sulfur/Total Halogen
2.1.4 Total Bound Nitrogen
2.1.5 Nitrogen, Carbon, and Sulfur
2.1.6 Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen
2.1.7 Total Organic Carbon
2.2 Oxygen Flask Combustion Methods
2.2.1 Total Halogens
2.2.2 Sulfur
2.2.3 Oxygen Flask Combustion: Ion Chromatography
2.2.4 Instrumentation
2.2.5 Applications
2.3 Acid and Solid Digestions of Polymers
2.3.1 Chlorine
2.3.2 Nitrogen
2.3.3 Phosphorus
2.3.4 Silica
2.4 X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
2.5 Antec 9000 Nitrogen/Sulfur Analyser
3 Functional Groups and Polymer Structure
3.1 Infrared and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
3.1.1 Instrumentation
3.1.2 Applications
3.2 Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Raman Spectroscopy
3.2.1 Theory
3.2.2 Instrumentation
3.2.3 Applications
3.3 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
3.3.1 Instrumentation
3.3.2 Applications
3.4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
3.4.1 Instrumentation
3.4.2 Applications
3.5 Proton Magnetic Resonance (PMR) Spectroscopy
3.5.1 Instrumentation
3.5.2 Applications
3.6 Reaction Gas Chromatography
3.6.1 Instrumentation
3.6.2 Applications
3.7 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography
3.7.1 Theory
3.7.2 Instrumentation
3.7.3 Applications
3.8 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
3.8.1 Instrumentation
3.8.2 Applications
3.9 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography–Fourier Transform NMR Spectroscopy
3.10 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
3.11 Mass Spectrometric Techniques
3.11.1 Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)
3.11.2 XPS
3.11.3 Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS)
3.11.4 Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry
3.11.5 MALDI-MS
3.11.6 Radio Frequency Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry
3.12 Microthermal Analysis
3.13 Atomic Force Microscopy
3.13.1 Applications
3.14 Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Analysis using X-rays
4 Examination of Polymer Surfaces and Defects
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Electron Microprobe X-ray Emission Spectrometry
4.2.1 Applications
4.3 NMR Micro-imaging
4.4 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
4.4.1 Instrumentation
4.4.2 Applications
4.5 Diffusion Reflectance FT-IR Spectroscopy (Spectra-Tech)
4.6 Attenuated Total Infrared Internal Reflectance (ATR) Spectroscopy (Spectra-Tech)
4.7 External Reflectance Spectroscopy (Spectra-Tech)
4.8 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy
4.8.1 Instrumentation
4.8.2 Applications
4.9 X-ray Diffraction/Infrared Microscopy of Synthetic Fibres
4.10 Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM)
4.11 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
4.12 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
4.12.1 Electron Microscopy and Inverse Gas Chromatography
4.12.2 Supersonic Jet Spectrometry
4.13 ToF SIMS
4.14 Laser-Induced Photoelectron Ionisation with Laser Desorption
4.15 Atomic Force Microscopy
4.16 Microthermal Analysis
5 Volatiles and Water
5.1 Gas Chromatography
5.1.1 Instrumentation
5.1.2 Applications
5.2 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
5.2.1 Instrumentation
5.2.2 Applications
5.3 Polarography
5.3.1 Instrumentation
5.3.2 Applications
5.4 Headspace Analysis
5.4.1 Instrumentation
5.4.2 Applications
5.5 Headspace Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
5.5.1 Instrumentation
5.6 Purge and Trap Analysis
5.6.1 Instrumentation
6 Fingerprinting Techniques
6.1 Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) and Melting Temperature (Tm)
6.2 Pyrolysis Techniques
6.2.1 Conventional Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography
6.2.2 Laser Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography
6.2.3 Photolysis Gas Chromatography
6.2.4 Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry
6.3 Infrared Spectroscopy
6.3.1 Potassium Bromide Discs
6.3.2 Hot Pressed Film
6.4 Pyrolysis Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
6.4.1 Theory
6.4.2 Instrumentation
6.4.3 Applications
6.5 Raman Spectroscopy
6.6 Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Raman Spectroscopy
6.7 Radio Frequency and Low Discharge Mass Spectrometry
7 Polymer Additives
7.1 IR and Raman Spectroscopy
7.1.1 Instrumentation
7.1.2 Applications
7.2 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
7.2.1 Instrumentation
7.2.2 Applications
7.3 Luminescence and Fluorescence Spectroscopy
7.3.1 Instrumentation
7.3.2 Applications
7.4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR)
7.5 Mass Spectrometry
7.5.1 Instrumentation
7.5.2 Applications
7.6 Gas Chromatography
7.6.1 Instrumentation
7.6.2 Applications
7.7 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
7.7.1 Theory
7.7.2 Instrumentation
7.7.3 Applications
7.8 Complementary Techniques
7.8.1 HPLC with Mass Spectrometry
7.8.2 HPLC with IR Spectroscopy
7.9 Ion Chromatography
7.10 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
7.10.1 Theory
7.10.2 Instrumentation
7.10.3 Applications
7.11 Thin-Layer Chromatography
7.11.1 Theory
7.11.2 Applications
7.12 Polarography
7.12.1 Instrumentation
7.12.2 Applications
7.13 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
7.14 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
7.15 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
7.16 X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
7.17 Solvent Extraction Systems
8 Polymer Fractionation and Molecular Weight
8.1 Introduction
8.2 High-Performance GPC and SEC
8.2.1 Theory
8.2.2 Applications
8.3 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
8.3.1 Instrumentation
8.3.2 Applications
8.4 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
8.4.1 Theory
8.4.2 Instrumentation
8.4.3 Applications
8.5 Gas Chromatography
8.6 Thin-Layer Chromatography
8.7 NMR Spectroscopy
8.8 Osmometry
8.9 Light Scattering Methods
8.10 Viscometry
8.11 Ultracentrifugation
8.12 Field Desorption Mass Spectrometry
8.13 Capillary Electrophoresis
8.14 Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
8.15 Ion Exchange Chromatography
8.16 Liquid Adsorption Chromatography
8.17 Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF SIMS)
8.18 MALDI-MS
8.19 Thermal Field Flow Fractionation
8.20 Desorption Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry
8.21 Grazing Emission X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
9 Thermal and Chemical Stability
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Theory
9.2.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis
9.2.2 Differential Thermal Analysis
9.2.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
9.2.4 Thermal Volatilisation Analysis
9.2.5 Evolved Gas Analysis
9.3 Instrumentation
9.3.1 Instrumentation for TGA, DTA, and DSC
9.3.2 Instrumentation for TVA and EGA
9.4 Applications
9.4.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis
9.4.2 TGA–FT-IR Spectroscopy and DSC–FT-IR Spectroscopy
9.4.3 Differential Thermal Analysis
9.4.4 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
9.4.5 Thermal Volatilisation Analysis
9.4.6 EGA–TGA–Gas Chromatogravimetry and TGA–Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
9.4.7 Mass Spectrometric Methods
9.5 Examination of Thermal Stability by a Variety of Techniques
9.6 Heat Stability of Polypropylene
9.6.1 Influence of Pigmentation and UV Stabilisation on Heat Ageing Life
10 Monitoring of Resin Cure
10.1 Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis
10.1.1 Theory
10.1.2 Instrumentation
10.1.3 Applications
10.2 Dielectric Thermal Analysis
10.2.1 Theory
10.2.2 Instrumentation
10.2.3 Applications
10.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
10.4 Fibre Optic Sensor to Monitor Resin Cure
11 Oxidative Stability
11.1 Theory and Instrumentation
11.2 Applications
11.2.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis
11.2.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
11.2.3 Evolved Gas Analysis
11.2.4 Infrared Spectroscopy of Oxidised Polymers
11.2.5 Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
11.2.6 Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Mass Spectrometry
11.2.7 Imaging Chemiluminescence
12 Examination of Photopolymers
12.1 Differential Photocalorimetry
12.1.1 Theory
12.1.2 Instrumentation
12.1.3 Applications
12.2 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
12.3 Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
12.4 Gas Chromatography-Based Methods
13 Glass Transition and Other Transitions
13.1 Glass Transition
13.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
13.2.1 Theory
13.2.2 Instrumentation
13.2.3 Applications
13.3 Thermomechanical Analysis
13.3.1 Theory
13.3.2 Instrumentation
13.3.3 Applications
13.4 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
13.4.1 Applications
13.5 Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetric Analysis
13.6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
13.7 Dielectric Thermal Analysis
13.8 Other Transitions (alpha, beta, and gamma)
13.8.1 Differential Thermal Analysis
13.8.2 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
13.8.3 Dielectric Thermal Analysis
13.8.4 Thermomechanical Analysis
13.8.5 Infrared Spectroscopy
14 Crystallinity
14.1 Theory
14.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
14.2.1 Theory
14.2.2 Instrumentation
14.2.3 Applications
14.3 Differential Thermal Analysis
14.3.1 Theory
14.3.2 Applications
14.4 X-ray Powder Diffraction
14.4.1 Applications
14.5 Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering/Diffraction
14.5.1 Applications
14.6 Small Angle X-ray Diffraction Scattering and Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy
14.6.1 Theory
14.6.2 Applications
14.7 Static and Dynamic Light Scattering
14.7.1 Applications
14.8 Infrared Spectroscopy
14.8.1 Applications
14.9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
14.9.1 Applications
15 Viscoelastic and Rheological Properties
15.1 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
15.1.1 Theory
15.1.2 Instrumentation
15.1.3 Applications
15.2 Thermomechanical Analysis
15.2.1 Applications
15.3 Dielectric Thermal Analysis
15.3.1 Theory
15.3.2 Instrumentation
15.3.3 Applications
15.4 Further Viscoelastic Behaviour Studies
15.5 Further Rheology Studies
16 Thermal Properties
16.1 Linear Coefficient of Expansion
16.1.1 Dilatometric Method
16.2 Melting Temperature
16.2.1 Thermal Methods
16.2.2 Fisher-Johns Apparatus
16.3 Softening Point (Vicat)
16.4 Heat Deflection/Distortion Temperature
16.4.1 Thermomechanical Analysis
16.4.2 Martens Method
16.4.3 Vicat Softening Point Apparatus
16.4.4 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
16.5 Brittleness Temperature (Low-Temperature Embrittlement)
16.6 Minimum Filming Temperature
16.7 Delamination Temperature
16.8 Melt Flow Index
16.9 Heat of Volatilisation
16.10 Thermal Conductivity
16.11 Specific Heat
16.11.1 Transient Plane Source Technique
16.11.2 Hot Wire Parallel Technique
16.12 Thermal Diffusivity
16.13 Ageing in Air
17 Flammability Testing
17.1 Combustion Testing and Rating of Plastics
17.1.1Introduction
17.1.2 Mining Applications
17.1.3 Electrical Applications
17.1.4 Transportation Applications
17.1.5 Furniture and Furnishing Applications
17.1.6 Construction Material Applications
17.1.7 Other Fire-Related Factors
17.2 Instrumentation
17.3 Examination of Combustible Polymer Products
17.4 Oxygen Consumption Cone Calorimetry
17.5 Laser Pyrolysis–Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
17.6 Pyrolysis–Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
17.7 Thermogravimetric Analysis
18 Mechanical, Electrical, and Optical Properties
18.1 Mechanical Properties of Polymers
18.1.1 Load-Bearing Characteristics of Polymers
18.1.2 Impact Strength Characteristics of Polymers
18.1.3 Measurement of Mechanical Properties in Polymers
18.1.4 Properties of Polymer Film and Pipe
18.1.5 Polymer Powders
18.1.6 Physical Testing of Rubbers and Elastomers
18.2 Electrical Properties
18.2.1 Volume and Surface Resistivity
18.2.2 Dielectric and Dissipation Factor
18.2.3 Dielectric Strength (Dielectric Rigidity)
18.2.4 Surface Arc Resistance
18.2.5 Tracking Resistance
18.3 Optical Properties and Light Stability
18.3.1 Stress Optical Analysis
18.3.2 Light Stability of Polyolefins
18.3.3 Effect of Pigments
18.3.4 Effect of Pigments in Combination with a UV Stabiliser
18.3.5 Effect of Carbon Black
18.3.6 Effect of Window Glass
18.3.7 Effect of Sunlight on Impact Strength
18.3.8 Effect of Thickness
18.3.9 Effect of Stress During Exposure
18.3.10 Effect of Molecular Weight
18.3.11 Effect of Sunlight on the Surface Appearance of Pigmented Samples
19 Miscellaneous Physical and Chemical Properties
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Particle Size Characteristics of Polymer Powders
19.2.1 Methods Based on Electrical Sensing Zone (or Coulter Principle)
19.2.2 Laser Particle Size Analysers
19.2.3 Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (Autocorrelation Spectroscopy)
19.2.4 Sedimentation
19.2.5 Other Instrumentation
20 Additive Migration from Packaged Commodities
20.1 Polymer Additives
20.2 Extraction Tests
Appendix 1
Instrument Suppliers
Thermal Properties of Polymers
Mechanical Properties of Polymers
Physical Testing of Polymer Powders
Electrical Properties of Polymers
Optical Properties of Polymers
Physical Testing of Rubbers and Elastomers
Polymer Flammability Properties
Addresses of Suppliers
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Index

Roy Crompton was Head of the polymer analysis research department of a major international polymer producer for some 15 years. In the early fifties he was heavily engaged in the development of methods of analysis for low-pressure polyolefins produced by the Ziegler-Natta route, including work on high-density polyethylene and polypropylene. He was responsible for the development of methods of analysis of the organoaluminum catalysts used for the synthesis of these polymers. He was also responsible for the development of thin-layer chromatography for the determination of various types of additives in polymers and did pioneering work on the use of TLC to separate polymer additives and to examine the separated additives by infrared and mass spectrometry. He retired in 1988 and has since been engaged as a consultant in the field of analytical chemistry and has written extensively on this subject, with some 20 books published.

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