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Home » Books » Rubber » Testing

 
Polymeric Materials for Electrostatic Applications


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Polymeric Materials for Electrostatic Applications
Author: Industry Analysis Report
ISBN 978-1-85957-076-0

Published: 1996
120 pages, softbound

Price: $180.00 + S&H
  • Summary
  • Table of Contents
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Static is a natural phenomenon which affects many industrial and commercial operations and can be a serious hazard especially in explosive atmospheres and in areas where flammable solvents or materials are present.

As regards the problem of electromagnetic interference (EMI), ever increasing harmony between the legislation of European Union (EU) member states is designed to ensure compatibility with regulations which seek to limit and contain the causes and effects of EMI.

This new report in the well-acclaimed series of business reports by Rapra's Industry Analysis and Publishing Group describes the polymers, compounds, additives, fillers, and agents used to dissipate static and EMI.

To combat EMI techniques such as metallic inner shields, plastic laminates, paints filled with conductive particles, cathode sputtering, and chiral absorbers amongst others are addressed. Sections of the report also cover legislation on electromagnetic compatibility and how conformity with such requirements can be assessed.

The influence of grounding, ionization, and humidity on electrostatic discharge is examined as are usage levels and application areas for chemical antistatic agents, conductive fillers, static dissipative compounds and intrinsically conductive polymers.

The report also includes sections on test methods and standards and suppliers of relevant products.

1 Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Scope and Structure of the Report
1.3 Methodology

2 Summary and Conclusions
2.1 Overall Conclusions
2.2 Materials
2.2.1 Polymers and Compounds
2.2.2 Additives and Fillers
2.2.3 Benefits and Limitations of Static Control Polymers
2.2.3.1 Antistatic Agents
2.2.3.2 Conductive Fillers
2.3 End Use Sectors
2.3.1 Electronics Industry
2.3.2 Business Machines, Consumer Electronics, and Telecommunications
2.3.3 Packaging
2.3.4 Medical Applications
2.3.5 Materials Storage and Handling Products
2.3.6 Chemical Process Industry
2.3.7 Automotive Industry

3 Electromagnetic Interference
3.1 Definitions
3.2 Sources and Receptors of EMI
3.3 EMI Shielding Theory
3.4 Phenomena and Effects which may be regarded as Electromagnetic Disturbance
3.5 Legislation on EMC
3.5.1 Background
3.5.2 Principles
3.5.3 European Directives
3.5.3.1 The Law in Brief
3.5.3.2 The Free Movement of Goods
3.5.3.3 Protection Requirements
3.5.3.4 List of the Principal Protection Requirements
3.5.3.5 EMC conformity Assessments: Grey Area or Black Art?
3.6 EMI Control Methods
3.6.1 Metallic Inner Shields
3.6.2. Foils/Plastic Laminates and Conductive Fabrics
3.6.3 Polymers Filled with Conductive Particles
3.6.4 Moulded Parts Built with Polymers Filled with Conductive Particles
3.6.5 Paints filled with Conductive Particles
3.6.6 Electroless Plating
3.6.7 Metal-filled Grades
3.6.8 Vacuum Metailization
3.6.9 Cathode Sputtering
3.6.10 Flame and Arc Spray
3.6.11 Inherently Conductive Polymers
3.6.12 Absorbers
3.7 Design and Material Considerations
3.7.1 General
3.7.2 Designing for the Environment
3.7.3 Economic Considerations
3.7.4 Research by the University of Warwick
3.8 Conclusions

4 Introduction to Electrostatic Discharge
4.1 Static
4.1.1 Triboelectrification
4.1.2 Conductors and Insulators
4.2 The hazards of Static Electricity
4.3 ESD Solutions
4.3.1 Grounding Techniques
4.3.2 Ionisation Methods
4.3.3 Humidity Control

5 The Technology of Static Control Polymers
5.1 Definitions
5.2 Chemical Antistatic Agents
5.2.1 Classification of Antistatic Agents
5.2.1.1 Classification by Mode of Application
5.2.1.2 Classification by Ion Type
5.2.2 Mode of Action of Antistatic Agents
5.2.3 Performance of Antistatic Agents
5.2.4 Usage Levels
5.2.5 Areas of Application for Chemical Antistatic Agents
5.2.5.1 Application by Polymer Type
5.2.5.2 Application by Type of Antistatic Agent
5.3 Trends in Antistatic Agents
5.4 Static Dissipative Compounds
5.4.1 Classification and Mode of Action of Conductive Fillers
5.4.1.1 Carbon Black
5.4.1.2 Other Conductive Fillers
5.4.1.3 Other Fillers
5.4.2 Processing Considerations
5.4.3 Areas of Application for Static Dissipative Compounds
5.5 Static Control by the use of intrinsically Conductive Polymers and Alloys
5.5.1 Intrinsically Conductive Polymers
5.5.1.1 Conduction in Polymers
5.5.1.2 Ionic Conductivity
5.5.1.3 Electronic Conductivity

5.6. Examples of Intrinsically Conductive Polymers
5.6.1 Polyacetylene
5.6.2 Polyparaphenylene
5.6.3 Polypyrrole
5.6.4 Polythiophene
5.6.5 Polyaniline
5.6.6 Polyphenylenevinylene
5.6.7 Charge Transfer Polymers
5.7 ICPs in Conductive Coatings
5.8 ICPs in Conductive Fibres, Fabrics, and Other Applications.
5.9 ICPs in Other Applications
5.10 Inherently Dissipative Polymers

6 Conductive and Antistatic Polymers
6.1 Nylon
6.2 Polycarbonate
6.3 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
6.4 Filled Conductive Rubbers
6.4.1 Filled Conductive Rubbers as EMI Shielding Gaskets

7 End-Use Applications for Static Control Polymers and Products
7.1 Introduction and Trends
7.2 The Electronics Industry
7.2.1 Background
7.2.2 Applications for Static Control Polymers and Products
7.2.2.1 Work Stations
7.2.2.2 Electronics Packaging
7.3 Business Machines and Consumer Electronics
7.3.1 Background
7.3.2 Applications for Static Control Polymers and Products
7.4 Packaging
7.4.1 Background
7.4.2 Applications for Static Control Polymers and Products
7.5 The Medical Sector
7.5.1 Background
7.5.2 Applications for Static Control Polymers and Products
7.6 The Working Environment
7.6.1 Clothing and Textiles
7.6.2 Furniture and Flooring
7.7 Materials Storage and Handling Products
7.8 Chemical Process Industries
7.9 The Automotive Industry
7.10 Other Applications

8 Test Methods and Standards
8.1 Test Methods
8.1.1 Definitions
8.1.2 Electroconductive Compounds/Volume Resistivity Measurements
8.1.3 Electroconductive Compounds/Surface Resistivity Measurements
8.2 Antistatic Materials
8.2.1 Test Conditions
8.2.2 Surface Resistivity Measurements
8.2.3 Charge Decay Measurements

9 Industry Structure
9.1 Suppliers of Antistatic Agents (Including Masterbatches and Concentrates)
9.2 Suppliers of Static Dissipative Compounds and Conductive Fillers
9.3 Suppliers of Static Control Products

Appendices
A.1 Glossary of Terms Used
A.2 Glossary of Abbreviations Used
A.3 Directory of Companies Mentioned in the Report
A.4 Points of reference in the UK concerning EMC
A.5 Suppliers of Antistatic Products and Compounds by Country

 

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