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Environmental Stress Cracking of Plastics


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Environmental Stress Cracking of Plastics
Author: D C Wright
ISBN 978-1-85957-064-7

Published: 1996
Pages: 147, Figures: 94, Tables: 23



Price: $180.00 + S&H
  • Summary
  • Table of Contents
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 The definition of ESC provides the key to the problem of predictability. Failure is due to a combination of influences, which would not cause the same problems if encountered individually.
Approximately 15% of all failures of plastics components in service are caused by ESC. Such failures may be costly or life threatening, and consequently the phenomenon has been the subject of intensive research for more than 40 years. This research has revealed a great deal about the casual mechanism, but has not yet brought us to the ideal position of being able to predict and prevent the occurrence of ESC in all situations.
The report is divided into three sections:
PREDICTION OF ESC AND ASSESSMENT BY TESTING
In the absence of comprehensive data for all possible combinations of mechanical influences and fluid there are a number of predictive pointers, together with testing techniques, which may prove invaluable when selecting materials for particular applications and situations.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ESC
An understanding of the theory of plastics failure, and the influence of fluids upon it, will also enable the reader to evaluate the problems which are likely to occur in specific instances.
DATA ON SPECIFIC PLASTICS
There has been extensive experimental work carried out on a number of plastics in frequently encountered environments. Some of the data produced are clearly of relevance in a wider context, and Dr Wright has presented these findings. The bulk of the work has been concerned with the commonly used amorphous thermoplastics, which are particularly sensitive to ESC due to their structure. However, there has been some interest in semi-crystalline plastics, particularly polyethylene, and data on these materials are also presented and discussed.

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 The Cause of ESC
1.2 Stress Cracking Agents

2 PREDICTION OF ESC AND ASSESSMENT BY TESTING
2.1 Prediction
2.2 Assessment by Testing
2.2.1 Bending Beam Tests
2.2.1.1 Single Cantilever for Rigid Materials
2.2.1.2 Three Point Bending for Rigid Materials
2.2.1.3 The Bell Telephone Test for Flexible Materials
2.2.2 Tensile Tests
2.2.2.1 Tensile Creep Rupture
2.2.2.2 Tensile Creep
2.2.2.3 Monotonic Creep
2.2.3 Micro-hardness Measurement
2.2.3.1 ABS and Dipropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (DPM)
2.2.3.2 UPVC and PMMA in a Range of Fluids
References

3 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ESC
3.1 The Strength of Thermoplastics
I 3.1.1 Short Term Strength
3.1.1.1 Yielding
3.1.1.2 Brittle Fracture
3.1.2 Long Term Strength
3.2 Crazing in Air
3.2.1 Stress Strain and Time for Initiation
3.2.2 Sites for Initiation
3.2.3 Craze Growth in Air
3.2.4 Crack Initiation and Growth in Air
3.3 EAC Theoretical Considerations
3.3.1 Stress, Strain, Time and Temperature
3.3.2 Influential Fluid Parameters
3.3.2.1 The Thermodynamics of Mixing
3.3.2.2 Hansen Solubility Parameters
3.3.2.3 Solubility Parameters of Plastics
3.3.2.4 Solubility at Equilibrium
3.3.2.5 Tg Depression due to Partial Solvation
3.3.2.6 Post Immersion Time
References

4 DATA ON SPECIFIC PLASTICS
4.1 Amorphous Thermoplastics
4.1.1 Polystyrene
4.1.2 Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN)
4.1.3 Polycarbonate
4.1.4 Polyvinylchloride (PVC)
4.1.5 Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)
4.1.6 PVC and PMMA?Assessment of ESC Damage Initiation using the Monotonic Creep Technique
4.1.6.1 Results
4.1.6.2 Correlation with Fluid Parameters
4. I .63 Rate and Temperature Effects
4.1.6.?1 Discussion
4.2 Semi?crystalline Thermoplastics
4.2.1 Plyethylene
42.1.1 Crating and Cracking in .Air
42.1.2 Crazing and Cracking in Active Fluids
4.2.1.3 Influence of Material Variables
4.2.2 PEEK
4.2.3 Polyamide
4.2.4 Other Semicrystallines
References
Subject Index
Name Index

 

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