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Home » Books » Rubber » Properties

 
Rubber Technologist's Handbook, Volume 2


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Rubber Technologist's Handbook, Volume 2
Author: Edited by J. White, S.S. De and K. Naskar
ISBN 978-1-84735-099-2

Published: 2008
Soft-backed

Cover option: Hard Cover (ISBN 978-1-84735-100-5) (+$48.00)
Softcover (ISBN 978-1-84735-099-2)

Price: $336.00 + S&H
  • Summary
  • Table of Contents
  •  
  • Related Publications
This book is a companion volume to Rubber Technologists Handbook published in 2001. Written by experts in their respective fields, this handbook discusses the most recent developments in the subject.

The ten chapters cover Microscopic Imaging of Rubber Compounds, Intelligent Tyres, Silica-Filled Rubber Compounds, Fibres In The Rubber Industry, Naval and Space Applications of Rubber, Advances in Fillers for the Rubber Industry, Thermoplastic Elastomers by Dynamic Vulcanisation, Polymers In Cable Applications, Durability of Rubber Compounds, and Radiochemical Ageing of Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Monomer

This book will serve the needs of those who are already in the rubber industry and new entrants to the field who aspire to build a career in rubber and allied areas. Materials Science students and researchers, designers and engineers should all find this handbook helpful.

1 Microscopic Imaging of Rubber Compounds
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Fillers and Elastomer Reinforcement
1.3 Characterisation of the Filler Dispersion
1.3.1 Techniques
1.3.2 Microscopy
1.3.3 Automated Image Analysis
1.4 Analytical Procedure by TEM/AIA
1.4.1 Preparation of the Samples and TEM Images
1.4.2 Image Digitalisation
1.4.3 Image Analysis
1.4.4 Statistical Analysis
1.5 Morphology of Carbon Black Dispersions
1.5.1 Dry state
1.5.2 Compounds
1.6 Morphometric Analysis on Silica Filled Compounds
1.6.1 Atomic Force Microscopy/Automated Image Analysis
1.6.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy/Automated Image Analysis
1.6.3 Microdensitometry and 3D-TEM/Electron Tomography
Acknowledgements
References

2 Intelligent Tyres
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Features of the Intelligent Tyre
2.2.1 Identification and Memory
2.2.2 Temperature
2.2.3 Inflation Pressure
2.2.4 Cornering Forces
2.2.5 Tyre Mileage
2.2.6 Treadwear
2.3 Historical Perspective
2.3.1 Tyres
2.3.2 Competing Products - Wheel-based Systems
2.3.3 The TREAD Act of 2000
2.3.4 Outlook for Intelligent Tyres
2.4 Design of the Intelligent Tyre System
2.4.1 Tyre
2.4.2 Electronics
2.4.3 Signal from Tyre
2.4.4 Readers
2.5 Standards
2.6 Summary
Anowledgement
References

3 Silica-Filled Rubber Compounds
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Characteristics of High-Dispersion Silicas
3.2.1 Various Classes of Silicas: Pyrogenic versus Precipitated, and their Production
3.2.2 Properties of Highly Dispersible Silicas
3.2.3 Compatibility Aspects
3.3 Coupling Agents
3.3.1 Types of Commonly used Coupling Agents
3.3.2 Reactions Between Silica, Silane Coupling Agent and Rubber Polymer
3.3.3 Kinetics
3.3.4 Alternative Coupling Agents
3.4 Characterisation Methods for Silica-Rubber Coupling
3.4.1 Rubber Reinforcement by Silica versus Carbon Black
3.4.2 The Payne Effect
3.4.3 Hysteresis Properties: tan d at 60 °C
3.4.4 Alternative Means to Quantify Filler-Filler and Filler-Polymer Interaction
3.5 Mixing of Silica-Rubber Compounds
3.5.1 Effect of TESPT on the Properties of Uncured and Cured Compounds
3.5.2 Properties of Uncured Compounds in Relation to the Dump Temperature in the Presence of TESPT
Silane Coupling Agent
3.5.3 Effect of the Dump Temperature on the Tensile Properties of Cured Samples
3.5.4 Interactions Between Time and Temperature as an Indication of Reaction Kinetics of the
Coupling Reaction
3.5.5 Effect of Mixer Size and Rotor Type
3.5.6 considerations on Mixer Operation
3.6 Conclusions
References

4 Fibres in the Rubber Industry
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Fibre Types and General Properties
4.2.1 Cotton
4.2.2 Rayon
4.2.3 Polyamides
4.2.4 Polyester, Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)
4.2.5 Aramid
4.2.6 Others
4.3 Yarn and Cord Processes
4.3.1 Twisting
4.3.2 Texturing
4.4 Fibre Units
4.4.1 Titer: Tex and Denier
4.4.2 Tenacity and Modulus: g/denier, N/tex or GPa
4.5 Adhesion
4.5.1 Types of Adhesive Interactions
4.6 Dipping Process
4.6.1 Factors Influencing Adhesion in Standard Resorcinol Formaldehyde Latex (RFL) Treatment
4.7 Alternative Dip Treatments for Polyester or Aramid
4.8 Chemically Altering the Surface
4.8.1 Polyester
4.9 Plasma Treatment
4.10 Rubber Treatment
4.10.1 Mixing Ingredients
4.10.2 Chemical Modification of Rubber
4.11 Methods for Analysis
4.11.1 Pullout Tests
4.11.2 Peel Tests
4.11.3 Surface Analysis
4.12 Fibres in Tyres
References

5 Naval and Space Applications of Rubber
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Acoustic Applications
5.2.1 Sonar Rubber Domes
5.2.2 Active Sonar
5.2.3 Insulation
5.3 Solid Rocket Propellants
5.4 Blast Mitigative Coatings
5.5 Aircraft Tyres
5.6 Airships
5.7 Inflatable Seacraft
5.7.1 Combat Rubber Raiding Craft
5.7.2 Hovercraft
5.8 Rubber Sealants
5.9 Miscellaneous Applications
5.9.1 Rubber Bullets
5.9.2 Intrusion Barriers
5.9.3 Elastomeric Torpedo Launcher
5.9.4 Mobile Offshore Base
Acknowledgements
References

6 Advances in Fillers for the Rubber Industry
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Requirements for Fillers in Tyre Applications
6.3 Advances in Carbon Black
6.3.1 Chemically-Modified Carbon Blacks
6.3.2 Inversion Carbon Blacks
6.4 Filler Particles Containing Both Carbon Black and Silica
6.4.1 Carbon-Silica Dual Phase Filler
6.4.2 Silica-Coated Carbon Blacks
6.5 Advances in Silica and Other Filler Materials
6.5.1 New Precipitated Silica for Silicone Rubber
6.5.2 Starch
6.5.3 Organo-Clays
6.6 Advanced Rubber-Filler Masterbatches
6.6.1 Cabot Elastomer Composites
6.6.2 Powdered Rubber
6.7 Concluding Remarks
References

7 Thermoplastic Elastomers by Dynamic Vulcanisation
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Polymer Blends
7.3 Classification of TPE
7.4 Dynamic Vulcanisation
7.5 Production of TPV
7.6 PP/EPDM TPV
7.6.1 Crosslinking Agents For PP/EPDM TPV
7.6.2 Morphology of PP/EPDM TPV
7.7 Rheology and Processing of TPV
7.8 Compounding in TPV
7.9 End Use Applications of TPV
7.10 Concluding Remarks
References

8 Polymers in Cable Application
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Broad Classification of Cables
8.2.1 Rigid Power Cables
8.2.2 Flexible Power and Control Cables
8.2.3 Special Purpose Cables
8.3 Components of Cable
8.3.1 Conductor
8.3.2 Insulation
8.3.3 Significance of Different Properties on Cable Insulation Quality and Performance
8.3.4 Chemical Resistance
8.3.5 Selection Criteria for Insulation
8.4 Cable Jacket (Sheath)
8.4.1 Property Requirements of Cable Jacketing Materials
8.4.2 Criteria for Selection of Sheaths (Cable Jacket)
8.5 Semi Conductive Components for High Voltage Cable
8.5.1 Property Requirements of Semi-conductive Compounds
8.6 Different Cable Materials
8.6.1 Polymers used in Cables as Insulation, Sheathing and Semi-conducting Materials
8.6.2 Common Elastomers for Cables
8.6.3 Specialty Elastomers for Cables
8.6.4 Thermoplastic Elastomers for Cables
8.6.5 High Temperature Thermoplastics and Thermosets
8.7 Different Methods of PE to XLPE Conversion
8.7.1 Crosslinking by High-Energy Irradiation (Electron Beam)
8.7.2 Crosslinking by the Sioplas Technique
8.8 Different Compounding Ingredients
8.8.1 Crosslinking Agents
8.8.2 Metal Oxides
8.8.3 Organic Peroxides and Other Curing Agents
8.8.4 Accelerators
8.8.5 Antioxidants
8.8.6 Antiozonants
8.8.7 Fillers
8.8.8 Auxiliary Additives
8.8.9 Plasticiser, Softeners, Processing Aids
8.8.10 Coupling-agents
8.9 Cable Manufacturing Process
8.9.1 Basic Principles of Compounding
8.9.2 Internal Mixing
8.9.3 Open Mixing
8.9.4 Application of Cable Insulation Covering
8.9.5 Curing of Cable
8.9.6 Dual Extrusion System
8.9.7 Triple Extrusion System
8.9.8 Improvement in CV Curing Techniques
8.10 Quality Checks and Tests
8.11 Polymers in some Specialty Cables
8.11.1 Mining Cable
8.11.2 Aircraft and Spacecraft Cable
8.11.3 Nuclear Power Cables
8.11.4 Ship Board and Marine Cables
References

9 Durability of Rubber Compounds
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Oxidation and Antioxidant Chemistry
9.2.1 Introduction
9.2.2 Mechanism of Rubber Oxidation
9.2.3 Stabilisation Mechanism of Antioxidants
9.2.4 Methods of Studying the Oxidation Resistance of Rubber
9.3 Ozone and Antiozonant Chemistry
9.3.1 Introduction
9.3.2 Mechanism of Ozone Attack on Elastomers
9.3.3 Mechanism of Antiozonants
9.4 Mechanism of Protection Against Flex Cracking
9.5 Trends Towards Long-Lasting Antidegradants
9.5.1 Introduction
9.5.2 Long-Lasting Antioxidants
9.5.3 Long-Lasting Antiozonants
References

10 Radiochemical Ageing of Ethylene-Propylene-Diene
Monomer Elastomers

Introduction
Radiochemical Degradation
Units
Radiation Sources
Commercial Processes and Applications
Experimental
Materials
Irradiation
10.1 Degradation Under Inert Atmosphere
10.1.1 Infra Red (IR) Analysis
10.1.2 UV-vis Analysis
10.1.3 Evaluation of Crosslinking
10.1.4 Mass Spectrometry Analysis
10.1.5 Mechanism of Degradation Under an Inert Atmosphere
10.2 Identification and Quantification of Chemical Changes in EPDM and EPR Films g-Irradiated Under Oxygen Atmosphere
10.2.1 IR Analysis
10.2.2 UV-vis Analysis
10.2.3 Analysis of the Oxidation Products
10.2.4 Gamma Irradiation in vacuo of Hydroperoxides
Formed in EPDM Films
10.2.5 Mass Spectrometry Analysis
10.2.6 Evaluation of Crosslinking
10.2.7 Post-Irradiation Analysis
10.2.8 Conclusion
10.3 Mechanism of Radiooxidation
10.3.1 Formation of Hydroperoxides
10.3.2 Recombination of Peroxy Radicals
10.3.3 Conclusion
10.4 Evaluation of Some Anti-Oxidants
10.4.1 Experimental
10.4.2 Experimental Results
10.4.3 Conclusion
References

11 Silicone Rubber
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Chemistry
11.3 Manufacturing
11.4 Three Major Classifications of Silicone Rubber
11.5 Properties
11.5.1 Heat Resistance Property
11.5.2 Low Temperature Flexibility
11.5.3 Mechanical Properties
11.5.4 Compression Set
11.5.5 Oil and Solvent Resistance
11.5.6 Steam Resistance
11.5.7 Water Resistance
11.5.8 Electrical Properties
11.5.9 Bio-compatibility
11.5.10 Permeability
11.5.11 Damping Characteristics
11.5.12 Surface Energy or Release Property
11.5.13 Weathering Resistance
11.5.14 Radiation Resistance
11.5.15 Thermal Ablative
11.6 Compounding
11.6.1 Silicone Gums
11.6.2 Reinforced Gums (Bases)
11.6.3 Filler
11.6.4 Softener
11.6.5 Vulcanisation
11.7 Processing
11.7.1 Mixing
11.7.2 Moulding
11.7.3 Extrusion
11.7.4 Oven Curing
11.7.5 Sponge
11.7.6 Calendering
11.7.7 Co-moulding and Over-moulding
11.8 Troubleshooting
11.9 Applications
11.9.1 Automotive Applications
11.9.2 Aerospace Applications
11.9.3 Electrical and Electronics
11.9.4 Coatings
11.9.5 Appliances
11.9.6 Foams
11.9.7 Medical Products
11.9.8 Baby Care
11.9.9 Consumer Products
Acknowledgements
References

 

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