Bishop’s non-mathematical explanation of vacuum deposition technologies will empower a wide range of technicians, production managers and engineers in related disciplines to improve performance and maximize productivity from vacuum coating systems
• Provides the knowledge and understanding needed to specify systems more effectively and enhance the dialogue between non-specialists and suppliers / engineers
• Provides those in the rapidly expanding fields of solar energy, display panels and flexible electronics with the know-how to unlock the potential of vacuum coating to transform their processes and products
Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition is the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll and provides a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating than deposition onto single pieces or non-flexible surfaces, such as glass. This technology has been used in industrial-scale applications for some time, including a wide range of metalized packaging (e.g. snack packets). Its potential as a high-speed, scalable process has seen an increasing range of new products emerging that employ this cost-effective technology:
• solar energy products are moving from rigid panels onto flexible substrates, which are cheaper and more versatile
• in a similar way, electronic circuit ‘boards’ can be produced on a flexible polymer, creating a new range of ‘flexible electronics’ products
• flexible displays are another area of new technology in vacuum coating, with flexible display panels and light sources emerging
Charles Bishop has written this book to meet the need he identified, as a trainer and consultant to the vacuum coatings industry, for a non-mathematical guide to the technologies, equipment, processes and applications of vacuum deposition. His book is aimed at a wide audience of engineers, technicians and production management. It also provides a guide to the subject for sectors in which vacuum deposition is a novel technology, such as solar energy and flexible electronics. By taking a holistic end-to-end approach to vacuum deposition, from materials through processes to end-use, Bishop provides his readers with an invaluable set of analytical tools and rules-of-thumb that will enable them to
• develop processes and products that reduce failure rates, increase system efficiency and improve end products
• improve the specification of system requirements
• have more worthwhile discussions with engineering specialists and machinery suppliers.
professionals and practitioners in the vacuum coating / vacuum metalizing industry: Engineers and technicians (systems, quality, process, maintenance), production managers, machinery designers and engineers and vendor sales and tech support staff. Engineers and managers in the main industry sectors utilizing vacuum coating: food packaging, electronics, pigment manufacturing, solar energy. Recommended reading for university courses dealing with vacuum deposition: vacuum deposition, surface engineering, vacuum engineering and applications, display technology, thin film processes and characterization.
Section I. Vacuum Basics.
1 What is a vacuum?
2 Products using vacuum deposited coatings
3 Pressure Measurement
5 Process Diagnostics & Coating Characteristics.
6 Leaks, water vapour and leak testing.
7 Mass spectrometers, Helium leak detectors & residual gas analysers.
Section II Substrates, surface modification and nucleation.
8 Substrates - surface quality, cleaning - adhesion & adhesion testing
9 Adhesion and adhesion tests.
10 Surface treatment of webs & foils.
11 Polymer coating basic information.
12 Nucleation, coalescence & film growth.
13 Pattern metallization.
Section III. Process.
14 The D.C. Glow Discharge or Plasma
15 Electron beam (e-beam) evaporation.
16 Thermal evaporation.
17 Radiant heated and Induction heated sources.
18 Chemical Vapour Deposition / Polymerisation onto webs.
19 Atomic layer deposition (ALD).
20 Planar Magnetron Sputtering source design and operation.
21 Magnetron sputtering source design options.
22 Reactive deposition - set-up & control
Section IV. System issues.
23 Machine specification & build issues. - Risk Analysis - process.
24 Heat load on the webs/foils.
25 Process variables.
26 Mechanical design.
27 Winding webs in vacuum.
28 Machine building trends.
29 System design.
32 Final thoughts