This book provides a clear and understandable text for users and developers of advanced engineered materials, particularly in the area of thin films, and addresses fundamentals of modifying the optical, electrical, photo-electric, triboligical, and corrosion resistance of solid surfaces and adding functionality to solids by engineering their surface, structure, and electronic, magnetic and optical structure. Thin film applications are emphasized. Through the inclusion of multiple clear examples of the technologies, how to use them,and the synthesis processes involved, the reader will gain a deep understanding of the purpose, goals, and methodology of surface engineering and engineered materials.
Virtually every advance in thin film, energy, medical, tribological materials technologies has resulted from surface engineering and engineered materials. Surface engineering involves structures and compositions not found naturally in solids and is used to modify the surface properties of solids and involves application of thin film coatings, surface functionalization and activation, and plasma treatment. Engineered materials are the future of thin film technology. Engineered structures such as superlattices, nanolaminates, nanotubes, nanocomposites, smart materials, photonic bandgap materials, metamaterials, molecularly doped polymers and structured materials all have the capacity to expand and increase the functionality of thin films and coatings used in a variety of applications and provide new applications. New advanced deposition processes and hybrid processes are being used and developed to deposit advanced thin film materials and structures not possible with conventional techniques a decade ago. Properties can now be engineered into thin films that achieve performance not possible a decade ago.
1.0 Properties of Solid Surfaces.
1.2 Tribological Properties of Solid Surfaces.
1.3 Optical Properties of Solid Surfaces.
1.4 Electrical and Opto-electronic Properties of Solid Surfaces.
1.5 Corrosion of Solid Surfaces.
2.0 Thin Film Deposition Processes.
2.1 Physical Vapor Deposition.
2.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition.
2.3 Pulsed Laser Deposition.
2.4 Hybrid Deposition Processes.
3.0 Thin Film Structures and Defects.
3.1 Thin Film Nucleation and Growth.
3.2 Structure of Thin Films.
3.3 Thin Film Structure Zone Models.
4. Thin Film Tribological Materials.
4.1 Wear Resistant Thin Film Materials.
4.2 Ultrifunctional Nanostructured, Nanolaminate and Nanocomposite Triboligical Materials.
5. Optical Thin Films and Composites.
5.1 Optical Properties at an Interface.
5.2 Single Layer Optical Coatings.
5.3 Multilayer Thin Film Optical Coatings.
5.4 Color and Chromaticity in Thin Films.
5.5 Decorative and Architectural Coatings.
6.0 Fabrication Processes for Electrical and Electro-Optical Thin Films.
6.1 Plasma Processing: Introduction.
6.2 Etching Processes.
6.3 Wet Chemical Etching.
6.6 Deposition Process for Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Thin Films.
6.7 Deposition Processes for Semiconductor Thin Films.
7.0 Functionally Engineered Materials.
7.1 Energy Band Structure of Solids.
7.2 Low Dimensional Structures.
7.3 Energy Band Engineering.
7.4 Artificially Structured and Sculpted Micro and NanoStructures.
8.0 Multifunctional Surface Engineering Applications.
8.1 Thin Film Photovoltaics.
8.2 Transparent Conductive Oxide Thin Films.
8.3 Electrochromic and Thermochromic Coatings.
8.4 Thin Film Permeation barriers.
8.5 Photocatalytic Thin Films and Low Dimensional Structures.
8.6 Frequency selective surfaces.
9.0 Looking into the Future: Bio-Inspired Materials and Surfaces.
9.1 Functional Biomaterials.
9.2 Functional Biomaterials: Self Cleaning Biological Materials.
9.3 Functional Biomaterials: Self Healing Biological Materials.
9.4 Self Assembled and Composite Nanostructures.
9.5 Introduction to Biophotonics.
9.6 Advanced Biophotonics Applications.
Peter Martin worked at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (BNW) for over 29 years where he currently holds an Emeritus Laboratory Fellow appointment, and specializes in developing thin film coatings for energy, biomedical, space and defense applications. He pioneered the use of reactive magnetron sputtering technology to fabricate novel and advanced optical coating materials and specializes in large area optical and thin film coating development. He has also led development of high performance large area ground-based and space-based laser mirrors for DOD applications.
Dr. Martin has written over 400 technical publications. He has won three R&D 100 Awards for his work in microfabrication and barrier coatings for flat panel displays, has two FLC awards, was awarded Battelle Technology of the Year (2003) for his work with the photolytic artificial lung, and voted Distinguished Inventor and PNNL 2005 Inventor of the Year. He has 26 US patents and numerous foreign and pending patents. He also teaches short courses on smart materials and energy materials and applications.