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Home » Books » Rubber » Testing

 
Handbook of Plasticizers


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Handbook of Plasticizers
Author: Dr. Eng. George Wypych
ISBN 1-895198-29-1

Published: 2004
Second eddition available here

Price: $285.00 + S&H
Out of Stock
  • Summary
  • Table of Contents
  • Author(s)
  • Related Publications
The information available today permits to use plasticizers more effectively and to avoid certain plasticizers in applications where they may cause health or material durability problems. Plasticizer incorporation demands a broad background of information because plasticizers are now added to complex mixtures containing variety of materials which may have different reaction to the presence of plasticizers. Plasticizer's choice is also not simple because there is a large selection of commercial plasticizers and various environmental issues dictating preferred solutions.

Both aspects considered indicate the need for comprehensive source which, using currently available means of computerized database should provide data and a broad background of theoretical information in condensed form easy to search.

All numerical data are in the form of database (see information on Plasticizer Database which is a separate publication), whereas the theoretical component of information is given in the traditional form of a printed book.

Twenty one chapters are included in Handbook of Plasticizers. Full Table of Contents is available for review. Only some chapters are discussed here to add more information which may not be obvious from the table of contents.

Data are available for large number of commercial plasticizers. This data is used in Chapter 2 to clarify typical properties of plasticizers which belong to one of the groups and also to give ranges of expected properties from a given group.

Chapters 5, 6 and 7 contain new and historical approaches, which explain mechanisms of plasticizers action and their behavior in plasticized systems. This theoretical background helps to understand practical observations and provides guidance to methods of material improvement. Chapter 9 shows plasticization steps and results of analytical studies which help in understanding these steps and parameters which may control them.

Fourteen Sections of Chapter 10 discuss plasticizer effects on physical and mechanical properties of plasticized materials. These sections are very essential for understanding the behavior of materials and principles of their formulation.

Chapter 11 contains data on 52 groups of polymers. The information is grouped under the following sections – Frequently used plasticizers, Practical concentrations, Main functions performed by plasticizers, Mechanism of plasticizer action, Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives, and Typical formulations if existing data permits. Use of such consistent method of data presentation helps to find information quickly and to compare data from various sources and applications.

Similar, Chapter 13 discusses 28 groups of products also according to a similar breakdown including Plasticizer types, Plasticizer concentration, Reasons for plasticizer use, Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use, Effect of plasticizers on product properties, Examples of formulations. Both chapters make use of a large number of patents and information in open literature discussing the most current findings and trends.

In Chapter 14 attempts are being made to discuss the following topics: effect of plasticizers on process conditions, processing defects formation and elimination with use of plasticizers, influence of rheological changes on process, equipment maintenance, and energy consumption.

Several chapters which follow discuss various aspects of plasticizer effect on health, safety, and environment. Chapter 17 contains opinions of renowned experts on various aspects of plasticizers effect on health and safety. Chapter 18 contains information on plasticizers persistence in soil and water. Plasticizers releases and their presence in environment are discussed for many important commercial plasticizers.

This short review and the Table of Contents show that this book is the most comprehensive source of current information on plasticizers. Plasticizers are used in so many products that every library should have this reference source of information on plasticizers readily available for its readers.



1 Introduction
1.1 Historical developments
1.2 Expectations from plasticizers
1.3 Definitions
1.4 Classification
References

2 Plasticizer Types
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Characteristic properties of industrial plasticizers
2.2.1 Abietates
2.2.2 Adipates
2.2.3 Alkyl sulfonates
2.2.4 Azelates
2.2.5 Benzoates
2.2.6 Chlorinated paraffins
2.2.7 Citrates
2.2.8 Energetic plasticizers
2.2.9 Epoxides
2.2.10 Glycol ethers and their esters
2.2.11 Glutarates
2.2.12 Hydrocarbon oils
2.2.13 Isobutyrates
2.2.14 Oleates
2.2.15 Pentaerythritol derivatives
2.2.16 Phosphates
2.2.17 Phthalates
2.2.18 Polymeric plasticizers
2.2.18.1 Esters
2.2.18.2 Polybutenes
2.2.19 Ricinoleates
2.2.20 Sebacates
2.2.21 Sulfonamides
2.2.22 Superplasticizers and plasticizers for concrete
2.2.23 Tri- and pyromellitates
2.2.24 Other plasticizers
2.2.24.1 Biphenyl derivatives
2.2.24.2 Calcium stearate
2.2.24.3 Carbon dioxide
2.2.24.4 Difuran diesters
2.2.24.5 Fluorine-containing plasticizers
2.2.24.6 Hydroxybenzoic acid esters
2.2.24.7 Isocyanate adducts
2.2.24.8 Multi-ring aromatic compounds
2.2.24.9 Natural product derivatives
2.2.24.10 Nitriles
2.2.24.11 Siloxane-based plasticizers
2.2.24.12 Tar-based products
2.2.24.13 Thioeters
2.2.24.14 Blends
2.3 Methods of synthesis and their effect on properties of plasticizers
2.4 Reactive plasticizers and internal plasticization
References

3 Methods of Quality Control of Plasticizers
3.1 Abbreviations, terminology, and vocabulary
3.2 Acid number
3.3 Aging studies
3.4 Ash
3.5 Brittleness temperature
3.6 Brookfield viscosity
3.7 Chemical resistance
3.8 Color
3.9 Compatibility
3.10 Compression set
3.11 Concrete additives
3.12 Electrical properties
3.13 Extractable matter
3.14 Flash and fire point
3.15 Fogging
3.16 Fusion
3.17 Gas chromatography
3.18 Hardness
3.19 Infrared analysis of plasticizers
3.20 Kinematic viscosity
3.21 Marking (classification)
3.22 Melt rheology
3.23 Migration
3.24 Poly(vinyl chloride) - standard specification
3.25 Powder-mix time
3.26 Purity
3.27 Refractive index
3.28 Residual contamination
3.29 Sampling
3.30 Saponification value
3.31 Saybolt viscosity
3.32 Sorption of plasticizer
3.33 Specific gravity
3.34 Specification
3.35 Staining
3.36 Stiffness
3.37 Tensile properties
3.38 Thermal expansion coefficient
3.39 Unsaponifiable contents
3.40 Viscosity of plastisols and organosols
3.41 Water concentration
3.42 Weight loss
References

4 Transportation and Storage
4.1 Transportation
4.2 Storage
References

5 Mechanisms of Plasticizers Action
A. Marcilla and M. Beltrán
Chemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain
5.1 Classical theories
5.1.1 The lubricity theory
5.1.2 The gel theory
5.1.3 Moorshead's empirical approach
5.2 The free volume theory
5.2.1 Mathematical models
References

6 Theories of Compatibility
Valery Yu. Senichev and Vasiliy V. Tereshatov
Institute of Technical Chemistry of
Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
6.1 Compatibility concepts
6.1. 1 Thermodynamic treatment
6.1.2 Interaction parameter
6.1.3 Effect of chemical structure of plasticizers and matrix
6.2 Solubility parameter and the cohesive energy density
6.2.1 Solubility parameter concept
6.2.2 Experimental evaluation of solubility parameters of plasticizers
6.2.3 Methods of experimental evaluation and calculation of solubility parameters
of polymers
6.2.3 The methods of calculation of solubility parameters
6.2.4 Multi-dimensional approaches
6.3 Methods of plasticizer selection based on principles of compatibility
6.3.1 How much plasticizer is necessary for a polymer composition?
6.3.2 Initial experimental estimation of compatibility
6.3.3 Thermodynamic compatibility
6.4 Practical approaches in using theory of compatibility for plasticizers selection
6.5 Experimental data illustrating effect of compatibility on plasticized systems
6.5.1 Influence of compatibility on the physical stability of the plasticized polymer
6.5.2 Influence of compatibility on viscosity of the plasticized composition
6.5.3 Influence of compatibility on mechanical properties and physical properties of
plasticized polymer
References

7 Plasticizer Motion and Diffusion
7.1 Plasticizer diffusion rate and the methods of study
7.2 Plasticizer motion and distribution in matrix
7.3 Plasticizer migration
7.4 Plasticizer distribution in materials in contact
Vasiliy V Tereshatov and Valery Yu Senichev
Institute of Technical Chemistry of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
7.5 Antiplasticization
7.6 Effect of diffusion and mobility of plasticizers on their suitability
References

8 Effect of Plasticizers on Other Components of Formulation
8.1 Plasticizer consumption by fillers
8.2 Solubility of additives in plasticizers
8.3 Additive molecular mobility and transport in the presence of plasticizers
8.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymerization and curing reactions
References

9 Plasticization Steps
A. Marcilla, J.C. García and M. Beltrán
Chemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain
9.1 Plasticization steps
9.2 Studies of plastisol's behavior during gelation and fusion
9.2.1 Rheological characterization
9.2.2 Studies by scanning electron microscopy
9.2.3 Study of polymer-plasticizer interactions by DSC
9.2.4 Study of polymer-plasticizer interactions by SALS
9.2.5 Study of polymer-plasticizer interactions by FTIR
9.2.6 Study of polymer-plasticizer interactions by Tg
References

10 Effect of Plasticizers on Properties of Plasticized Materials
10.1 Mechanical properties
10.1.1 Tensile strength
10.1.2 Elongation
10.1.3 Hardness
10.1.4 Toughness, stiffness, ductility, modulus
10.1.5 Other mechanical properties
10.2 Optical properties
10.3 Spectral properties
10.4 Rheological properties
Juan Carlos Garcia and Antonio Francisco Marcilla
Chemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain

10.4.1 Torque measurement in mixers
10.4.2 Capillary viscometers
10.4.3 Dynamic experiments
10.4.4 Rheology of PVC plastisols
10.4.4.1 Flow properties
10.4.4.2 Gelation and fusion
10.4.4.3 Recycling of PVC plastisols
10.5 Electrical properties
10.6 Influence of plasticizers on glass transition temperature of polymers
Valery Yu Senichev and Vasiliy V Tereshatov
Institute of Technical Chemistry of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
10.7 Flammability and smoke formation in the presence of plasticizers
10.8 Thermal degradation
10.8.1 Thermal degradation of plasticizer
10.8.2 Effect of polymer degradation products on plasticizers
10.8.3 Effect of plasticizer degradation products on polymer degradation
10.8.4 Loss of plasticizer from material due to the chemical decomposition reactions
and evaporation
10.8.5 Effect of plasticizers on the thermal degradation of material
10.9 Effect of UV and ionized radiation on plasticized materials
10.10. Biodegradation in the presence of plasticizers
10.11 Crystallization, structure, and orientation of macromolecules with and without
plasticizers
10.12 Plasticizer effect on contact with other materials
10.13 Influence of plasticizers on swelling of crosslinked elastomers
Vasiliy V. Tereshatov, Valery Yu. Senichev
Institute of Technical Chemistry, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
10.13.1 Change of elastic properties of elastomers on swelling in liquids of
different polarity
10.13.2 Influence of swelling on viscoelastic properties of crosslinked amorphous
elastomers
10.13.3 Influence of swelling on tensile strength and critical strain of elastic materials
10.14 Effect of plasticizers on other properties
References

11 Plasticizers Use and Selection for Specific Polymers
11.1 ABS
11.1.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.1.2 Practical concentrations
11.1.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.1.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
11.1.5 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.1.6 Typical formulations
11.2 Acrylics
11.2.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.2.2 Practical concentrations
11.2.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.2.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
11.2.5 Typical formulations
11.3 Bromobutyl rubber
11.3.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.3.2 Practical concentrations
11.3.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.3.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.4 Butyl terpolymer
11.4.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.4.2 Practical concentrations
11.5 Cellulose acetate
11.5.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.5.2 Practical concentrations
11.5.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.5.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
11.5.5 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.6 Cellulose butyrates and propionates
11.6.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.6.2 Practical concentrations
11.6.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.6.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.7 Cellulose nitrate
11.7.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.7.2 Practical concentrations
11.7.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.7.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.7.5 Typical formulations
11.8 Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
11.9 Chlorosulfonated polyethylene
11.10 Copolymers
11.10.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.10.2 Practical concentrations
11.10.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.10.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
11.11 Cyanoacrylates
11.11.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.11.2 Practical concentrations
11.11.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.12 Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Copolymer, EPDM
11.12.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.12.2 Practical concentrations
11.12.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.12.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.13 Epoxy resin
11.13.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.13.2 Practical concentrations
11.13.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.13.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.14 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, EVA
11.15 Ionomers
11.15.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.15.2 Practical concentrations
11.15.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.15.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
11.15.5 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.16 Nitrile rubber
11.16.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.16.2 Practical concentrations
11.16.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.16.4 Typical formulations
11.17 Polyacrylonitrile
11.18 Polyamide
11.18.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.18.2 Practical concentrations
11.18.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.18.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.19 Polyamine
11.20 Polyaniline
11.21 Polybutadiene
11.21.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.21.2 Practical concentrations
11.21.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.22 Polybutylene
11.22.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.22.2 Practical concentrations
11.22.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.23 Poly(butyl methacrylate)
11.23.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.23.2 Practical concentrations
11.23.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.24 Polycarbonate
11.24.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.24.2 Practical concentrations
11.24.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.25 Polyester
11.25.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.25.2 Practical concentrations
11.25.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.25.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.25.5 Typical formulations
11.26 Polyetherimide
11.27 Polyethylacrylate
11.28 Polyethylene
11.28.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.28.2 Practical concentrations
11.28.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.28.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
11.28.5 Typical formulations
11.29 Poly(ethylene oxide)
11.29.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.29.2 Practical concentrations
11.29.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.29.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.30 Polyisobutylene
11.31 Polyisoprene
11.31.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.31.2 Practical concentrations
11.31.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.31.4 Typical formulations
11.32 Polyimide
11.32.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.32.2 Practical concentrations
11.32.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.32.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.33 Polylactide
11.33.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.33.2 Practical concentrations
11.33.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.33.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.34 Polymethylmethacrylate
11.34.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.34.2 Practical concentrations
11.34.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.34.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
11.34.5 Typical formulations
11.35 Polypropylene
11.35.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.35.2 Practical concentrations
11.35.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.35.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.36 Poly(n-vinylcarbazole)
11.37 Poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)
11.37.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.37.2 Practical concentrations
11.37.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.37.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
11.37.5 Typical formulations
11.36 Polyphenylene ether
11.36.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.36.2 Practical concentrations
11.36.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.37 Polystyrene
11.37.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.37.2 Practical concentrations
11.37.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.38 Polysulfone
11.39 Polysulfide
11.39.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.39.2 Practical concentrations
11.39.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.40 Poly(phenylene sulfide)
11.41 Polyvinylacetate
11.41.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.41.2 Practical concentrations
11.41.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.41.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.42 Polyvinylalcohol
11.42.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.42.2 Practical concentrations
11.42.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.42.4 Typical formulations
11.43 Polyvinylbutyral
11.43.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.43.2 Practical concentrations
11.43.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.43.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.44 Polyvinylchloride
11.44.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.44.2 Practical concentrations
11.44.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.44.4 Mechanism of plasticizer action
11.44.5 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.44.6 Typical formulations
11.45 Polyvinylidenefluoride
11.45.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.45.2 Practical concentrations
11.45.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.46 Polyvinylidenechloride
11.47 Polyurethanes
Vasiliy Tereshatov V., Valery Senichev Yu., Elsa Tereshatova N., Marina Makarova A.
Institute of Technical Chemistry, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
11.47.1 The mechanism of the specific action of plasticizers on polyurethanes properties
11.47.2 Principles of a plasticizer selection
11.47.3 Plasticizers in use
11.48 Proteins
11.48.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.48.2 Practical concentrations
11.48.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.48.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.48 Rubber, natural
11.48.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.48.2 Practical concentrations
11.48.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.48.4 Typical formulations
11.49 Silicone
11.49.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.49.2 Practical concentrations
11.49.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.49.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.49.5 Typical formulations
11.50 Styrene-butadiene rubber
11.50.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.50.2 Practical concentrations
11.50.3 Typical formulations
11.51 Styrene-butadiene-styrene
11.51.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.51.2 Practical concentrations
11.51.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.52 Starch
11.52.1 Frequently used plasticizers
11.52.2 Practical concentrations
11.52.3 Main functions performed by plasticizers
11.52.4 Effect of plasticizers on polymer and other additives
11.52.5 Typical formulations
References

12 Plasticizers in Polymer Blends
12.1 Plasticizer partition between component polymers
12.2 Interaction of plasticizers with blend components
12.3 Effect of plasticizers on blend properties
12.4 Blending to reduce or to replace plasticizers
References

13 Plasticizers in Various Industrial Products
13.1 Adhesives and sealants
13.1.1 Plasticizer types
13.1.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.1.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.1.4 advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.1.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
13.1.6 Examples of formulations
13.2 Aerospace
13.3 Agriculture
13.4 Automotive applications
13.4.1 Plasticizer types
13.4.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.4.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.4.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.4.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
13.5 Cementitious materials
13.5.1 Plasticizer types
13.5.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.5.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.5.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.5.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
13.5.6 Examples of formulations
13.6 Coated fabrics
13.6.1 Plasticizer types
13.6.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.6.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.6.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.6.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
13.6.6 Examples of formulations
13.7 Cosmetics
13.7.1 Plasticizer types
13.7.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.7.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.7.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.7.6 Examples of formulations
13.8 Dental materials
13.8.1 Plasticizer types
13.8.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.8.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.8.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.9 Electrical and electronics
13.9.1 Plasticizer types
13.9.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.9.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.9.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.10 Fibers
13.10.1 Plasticizer types
13.10.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.10.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.11 Film
13.11.1 Plasticizer types
13.11.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.11.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.11.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.12 Food
13.12.1 Plasticizer types
13.12.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.12.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.12.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.12.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
13.13 Flooring
13.13.1 Plasticizer types
13.13.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.13.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.13.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.13.5 Examples of formulations
13.14 Foams
13.14.1 Plasticizer types
13.14.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.14.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.14.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.14.5 Examples of formulations
13.15 Footwear
13.15.1 Plasticizer types
13.15.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.15.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.15.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.16 Gaskets
13.16.1 Plasticizer types
13.16.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.16.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.16.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.16.5 Examples of formulations
13.17 Inks, varnishes, and lacquers
13.17.1 Plasticizer types
13.17.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.17.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.17.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.17.5 Examples of formulations
13.18 Medical applications
13.18.1 Plasticizer types
13.18.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.18.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.18.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.18.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
13.18.6 Examples of formulations
13.19 Membranes
13.19.1 Plasticizer types
13.19.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.19.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.19.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.20 Paints and coatings
13.20.1 Plasticizer types
13.20.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.20.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.20.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.20.5 Examples of formulations
13.21 Pharmaceutical products
13.21.1 Plasticizer types
13.21.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.21.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.21.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.21.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
13.21.6 Examples of formulations
13.22 Photographic materials
13.22.1 Plasticizer types
13.22.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.22.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.23 Pipes
13.23.1 Plasticizer types
13.23.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.23.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.23.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.23.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
13.23.6 Examples of formulations
13.24 Roofing materials
13.24.1 Plasticizer types
13.24.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.24.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.24.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.24.5 Examples of formulations
13.25 Tires
13.25.1 Plasticizer types
13.25.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.25.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.25.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.25.5 Examples of formulations
13.26 Toys
A. Marcilla and J.C. García
Chemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain
13.26.1 Migration of plasticizers
13.26.2 Substitutes to phthalates
13.27 Tubing
13.27.1 Plasticizer types
13.27.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.27.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.27.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.27.5 Examples of formulations
13.28 Wire and cable
13.28.1 Plasticizer types
13.28.2 Plasticizer concentration
13.28.3 Reasons for plasticizer use
13.28.4 Advantages and disadvantages of plasticizers use
13.28.5 Effect of plasticizers on product properties
13.28.6 Examples of formulations
References

14 Plasticizers in various processing methods
14.1 Blow molding
14.2 Calendering
14.3 Coil coating
14.4 Compression molding
14.5 Compounding (mixing)
14.6 Dip coating
14.7 Dry blending
14.8 Extrusion
14.9 Injection molding
14.10 Polymer synthesis
14.11 Powder molding
14.12 Rotational molding
M. Beltran and A Marcilla
Chemical Engineering Department, Alicante University, Spain
14.13 Rubber processing
14.14 Thermoforming
14.15 Vacuum molding
14.16 Web coating
14.17 Wire coating
References

15 Specialized Analytical Methods in Plasticizer Testing
15.1 Plasticizer identification
15.2 Methods of determination of plasticizer concentration
15.3 Determination of volatility, molecular motion, diffusion, and migration of
plasticizers
15.4 Methods of study of plasticized materials
References

16 Mathematical Modelling in Application to Plasticizers
16.1 PVC-plasticizer interaction model
16.2 Gas permeation
16.3 Migration
16.4 Dry-blending time
16.5 Gelation and fusion
16.6 Thermal decomposition
References

17 Health and Safety Issues with Plasticizers and Plasticized Materials
Søren Thor Larsen
National Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Chemical Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark
17.1 Adjuvant effect of plasticizers
17.1.1 Introduction
17.1.2 Airway allergy
17.1.3 The immune system
17.1.4 Immunotoxicology
17.1.5 Environmental adjuvants
17.1.6 Epidemiological studies
17.1.7 Animal studies
17.1.7.1 A mouse bioassay for the detection of adjuvant effect
17.1.7.2 Results
17.1.8 Human exposure and hazard evaluation
17.1.9 Other effects of plasticizers in relation to allergy and airway effects
17.1.10 Conclusions and practical applications
Acknowledgments
References
17.2 The rodent hepatocarcinogenic response to phthalate plasticizers: basic biology and human extrapolation
Ruth A. Roberts
Aventis Pharma Drug Safety Evaluation, Centre de Recherche de Paris, Vitry sur Seine, France
17.2.1 Introduction
17.2.2 Gene Expression and Cancer Toxicology
17.2.2.1 Gene Expression
17.2.2.2 Cancer biology: some basic considerations
17.2.2.3 Chemical carcinogenesis
17.2.3 Peroxisome proliferators and rodent nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis
17.2.3.1 The peroxisome proliferators
17.2.3.2 PPARa
17.2.4 Species differences in response to PPs
17.2.5 Summary
References
17.3 The influence of maternal nutrition on phthalate teratogenicity
Janet Y. Uriu-Adams (1) and Carl L. Keen (2)
Departments of Nutrition (1) and Internal Medicine (2), University of California at Davis, Davis, California, USA
17.3.1 Introduction
17.3.2 Reproductive toxicity of BBP and DEHP
17.3.3 Acute phase response-induced alterations in maternal and conceptus
nutrient metabolism
17.3.4 Concluding comments
References
17.4 Public health implications of phthalates: A review of findings from the U.S. National Toxicology Program's Expert Panel Reports
Stephanie R. Miles-Richardson
LCDR United States Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, USA
17.4.1 Introduction
17.4.2 Exposure to adults in the general population
17.4.3 Exposure of vulnerable sub-populations
17.4.3.1 Children
17.4.3.2 Women
17.4.3.3 Occupational exposure
17.4.3.4 Medical exposure
17.4.4 Health effects of phthalate exposure
17.4.5 Expert Panel conclusions
17.4.6 Public health implications of Expert Panel conclusions
References
17.5 Plasticizers in the indoor environment
Werner Butte
Carl von Ossietzky University, Faculty of Chemistry, Oldenburg, Germany
17.5.1 Introduction
17.5.2 Sources of indoor plasticizers
17.5.3 Occurrence of plasticizers indoors
17.5.3.1 Indoor air
17.5.3.2 House dust
17.5.4 Impact of plasticizers in the indoor environment
17.5.4.1 Indoor plasticizers and health
17.5.4.2 Human exposure assessment for plasticizers in the indoor environment
17.5.4.3 Reference and guideline values of plasticizers to assess indoor quality
17.5.5 Summary
References
Addendum
List of Abbreviations

18 The Environmental Fate of Plasticizers
William R. Roy
Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois, USA
18.1 Introduction
18.1.1 Releases to the environment
18.1.2 Levels in the environment
18.2 Plasticizers in water
18.2.1 Solubility 7
18.2.2 Volatilization from water
18.2.3 Abiotic degradation in water
18.2.4 Biodegradation in water
18.2.5 Adsorption from water
18.3 Soil and sediment
18.3.1 Volatilization
18.3.2 Biodegradation in soil
18.4. Organisms
18.5 Air
Summary and Concluding Remarks
References

19 Regulations and Data
19.1 Toxic substance control
19.2. Carcinogenic effect
19.3 Teratogenic and mutagenic effect
19.4 Workplace exposure limits
19.5 Exposure from consumer products
19.6 Plasticizers in drinking water
19.7 Food regulatory acts
19.8 Medical and other applications
References

20 Personal Protection
20.1 Clothing
20.2 Gloves
20.3 Eye protection
20.4 Respiratory protection
References

21 Plasticizer Recovery & Recycling
References

George Wypych has a Ph. D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research & development. He has published 14 books: PVC Plastisols, (University Press); Polyvinylchloride Degradation, (Elsevier); Polyvinylchloride Stabilization, (Elsevier); Polymer Modified Textile Materials, (Wiley & Sons); Handbook of Material Weathering, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Handbook of Fillers, 1st and 2nd Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Recycling of PVC, (ChemTec Publishing); Weathering of Plastics. Testing to Mirror Real Life Performance, (Plastics Design Library), Handbook of Solvents, Handbook of Plasticizers, Handbook of Antistatics, Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives, PVC Degradation & Stabilization, The PVC Formulary (all by ChemTec Publishing), 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings. He is included in the Dictionary of International Biography, Who's Who in Plastics and Polymers, Who's Who in Engineering, and was selected International Man of the Year 1996-1997 in recognition for his services to education.

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