This book contains two parts: introduction to the raw materials used in rubber industry and the formulary part where formulations for final products are given.
Eleven rubber elastomers for which formulations are given in the second part are discussed in the beginning of the first section. This is followed by information on several groups of additives such as activators, accelerators, retarders, peroxides, fillers, antioxidants, antiozonants, and several other groups.
The first section is completed by information on rubber processing and physical testing for in-process analysis and final product property determination. The first section is designed to give background to better understand formations. The second part is divided to chapters based on the type of rubber used in the formulations. There are eleven chapters each for natural rubber and polyisoprene, styrene-butadiene & butadiene, butyl and halobutyl, neoprene, EPDM, nitrile, chlorinated and chlorosulfonated polyethylene, urethane, silicone and fluoroelastomers, acrylate and epichlorohydrin, and specialty rubbers.
The formulations included in this volume were developed by research centers of leading manufacturers in the USA including Ausimont, DSM Copolymer, DuPont Dow Elastomers, Engelhard Corporation, Enichem Elastomers Americas, Exxon Chemical Company, Goodyear Chemical Division, PPG Industries, TSE Industries, Union Carbide Corporation, Uniroyal Chemical Company, R. T. Vanderbilt Company and Zeon Chemicals. The formulations were subjected to testing for intended products from the point of view of their performance, long term stability, and processing methods & conditions.
About 500 formulations are given for a large number of products which belong to the following groups: tires, automotive parts (motor mount, wiper blade, pipe gasket, handle grip, bushings, exhaust hanger, V-belt, coolant hose, radiator hose, brake hose, window gasket, weatherstrip, diaphragms, fuel hose, gasoline resistant lining, power steering, shock absorber, shaft seal), seals, footwear, conveyor belts, bottle stoppers, bands, balls, golf ball cores, dampening materials, springs, exercise equipment, cellular materials, sponge, air duct, hose, tubing, air conditioner parts, wet suits, gaskets, roof sheating, curtain wall seal and other building seals, cable and wire, water sports equipment, outdoor matting, building profiles, home equipment, and many more.
The formulations presented in this book were optimized for different processing methods such as vulcanization, extrusion, injection molding, press molding, lamination, calendering, transfer molding, and coating. There is a clear distinction in the presentation which allows for easy choice of formulation for processing method and processing conditions. The process data given provide starting conditions very useful for process optimization. The other important feature of this collection of formulations is related to the large variety of special performance characteristics under which products are expected to perform. Examples of these special characteristics are improved tear strength, electric conductivity, electric and thermal insulating properties, an ozone resistance, low heat build-up, adhesion to specific substrates, thick or thin articles, resistance to chemicals, reversion, weather, easy processing, abrasion resistance, translucence, color stability, food and pharmaceutical applications, microwave curing, antistatic properties, flame resistance, high and low temperature service, and more. This large number of formulations ready for comparison allows to understand principles of their formulation and optimization.
From the above information it becomes apparent that manufacturers of rubber products will find this collection of formulations very useful for many purposes such as formulation of new products, reformulation of existing products, finding more economical methods of production of existing and new products, formulation costing, and estimation of cost of competing manufacturers. But usefulness of this book goes beyond rubber product manufacturers. Users of rubber products can find the book useful for understanding compatibility issues with rubber products, the available performance characteristics of various products, make judgment regarding the level of technology of their suppliers, define state-of-art performance, etc. In summary, this book, similar to all bases dealing with extensive amount of data, is suggested reference volume which helps both manufacturer and a rubber product user to obtain answers to many questions coming from everyday practice. This book is timely published because of increasing interest in rubber technology and application due to new characteristics of optimized and engineered rubber compositions.
Natural rubber and polyisoprene
Styrene-butadiene and butadiene
Butyl and halobutyl
Chlorinated polyethylene and chlorosulfonated polyethylene
Silicone and fluoroelastomers
Acrylate and epichlorohydrin